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A Presentation on

Performance Analysis : Automated Storage & Retrieval Systems (AS/RS)

Presented By:1. Amit Mathur (762) 2. Ranjeet Singh Rathore(778) Batch 2008(MT Modular)

Submitted To :Prof. S.S. Banwait Sir Ashish Sir

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Outlines

Introduction Basic Structure Types of AS/RS Terminology Dual Shuttle S/R System Computational Analysis

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What is AS/RS ?

Definition (1) - An AS/RS is a combination of equipment and controls which handles, stores, and retrieves materials with precision, accuracy, and speed under a defined degree of automation. Definition (2) - AS/RS systems transport, storage, retrieve, and report on every inventory item with up-to-the minute accuracy. Definition (3) The Basic AS/RS consists of a rack structure for storing loads and a storage/retrieval mechanism whose motions are linear (x-y-z, motions). Definition (4) AS/RS refers to a variety of computer-controlled methods for automatically depositing and retrieving loads from defined storage locations.

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Basic Structure of AS/RS

Storage structure S/R (storage /retrieval) machine Storage modules e.g.) pallets for unit loads One or more pickup-and deposit station External handling system

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1. Storage structure

which is the rack framework made of fabricated steel supports the loads contained in the AS/RS

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2. S/R Machine

It is used to accomplish storage transaction, delivering loads from the input station into storage, and retrieving loads from storage and delivering.

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3. Storage Modules

are the unit load containers of the stored material. include pallets, steel wire baskets and containers, plastic tote pans

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4. Pick-and-Deposit station

is where loads are transferred into and out of the AS/RS. generally located at the end of the aisles for access the external handling system that brings loads to the AS/RS and takes loads away.

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5. External handling system

brings loads to the AS/RS and takes loads away. eg.AGV (Automatic Guided Vehicle)

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Some Current Types of AS/RS

1. 2.

Unit load AS/RS - Large automated system designed to use S/R machines to move unit loads on pallets into and out of storage racks. Deep-Lane AS/RS High-density unit load storage system, designed to store large amounts of stock with relatively little amounts of stock types. It generally stores ten or more loads in a single rack with the input on one side and output on the other

3.
4.

Mini-load AS/RS - Smaller automated system designed to move smaller loads into and out of storage bins or drawers.
Man-on-board AS/RS - Uses personnel to pick items from racks or bins, reducing transaction time.

5.
6.

Automated item retrieval system - Items to be moved are stored in single file lanes, rather than in bins or drawers.
Vertical lift storage modules same principle of using a center aisle to access loads is used except that the aisle is vertical. Helps to save floor space.
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Some Definitions

Bay: A vertical stack of unit loads from floor to ceiling. Row: A series of bays located side by side. Aisles: Spaces between rows. The aisles are used for stacker cranes to move up and down between rows. Each crane serves both sides of an aisle. Light loads of less than 1000kg (app. 2500 pounds) require a 15cm (app. 6 inches) clearance for rack support and crane entry. Heavier loads require 25cm (app.9 inches) clearance. Racks may be 25-30m (80-90 feet) high. Served by computer-controlled stacker cranes carrying 1500-2000kg (app. 3000-4000 pound) loads. S/R machines can travel both horizontally and vertically at speeds of up to 180m/min (600feet/min) and 40m/min (150feet/min) in between aisles that are only 15cm (6 inches) wider than the cranes.

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L H

Rack Bay Height

Crane

Bay

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Automated Storage Retrieval Analysis:

Dual Shuttle S/R Machine Throughput Performance Computational Techniques Productivity and Storage Capacity

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Dual Shuttle AS/RS Machine

An alternative design of the S/R machine that has two shuttles instead of one as in a regular AS/RS. The new design eliminates the travel between the storage and retrieval points and performs both a storage and a retrieval at the point of retrieval, thereby achieving the throughput increase. We extend this configuration to a dual shuttle AS/RS that has a higher throughput capacity than existing AS/RS systems.

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Single Shuttle S/R Machine

A typical unit-load AS/RS has an S/R machine operating in each aisle of the system. The S/R machine has a mast which is supported at the floor and the ceiling and travels horizontally within the aisle. Connected to this mast is a shuttle mechanism that carries the unit load and moves vertically up and down the mast. The shuttle mechanism also transfers loads in and out of storage locations in the rack.
Figure 1. Single Shuttle S/R Machine Design

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Contd.
A typical single shuttle AS/RS can perform a single command cycle or a dual command cycle. A single command cycle consists of either a storage or a retrieval. For a storage, the time consists of the time to pickup the load at the I/O point, travel to the storage/retrieval point, deposit the load at that point, and return to the I/O point. The time for a retrieval is developed similarly. A dual command cycle involves both a storage and a retrieval in the same cycle. The cycle time involves the time to pickup the load at the I/O point, travel to the storage location, place the load in the rack, travel empty to the retrieval location, retrieve a load, return to the I/O point, and deposit the load at the I/O point. If we critically analyze the dual command cycle of the S/R machine (shown by the solid line in Figure 2), a potential open location for a future storage is created when a retrieval is performed. Furthermore, if both a retrieval and a storage are performed at the same point, the travel between time (TB) is eliminated, and the travel time will be equal to the single command travel time. With the existing AS/RS design, this mode of operation is not possible; therefore, an alternative, a dual shuttle R/S machine, is proposed.
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Contd.

Travel Between S/R machine path R/S machine path R (R,S)

I/O

Figure 2. Dual Command Travel Paths of S/R and R/S Machines

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Dual Shuttle S/R or R/S Machine

Consider an S/R machine with two shuttle mechanisms instead of one. This new S/R machine could now carry two loads simultaneously.
Each shuttle mechanism could operate independently of the other, so that individual loads can still be stored and retrieved.

Figure 3. Dual Shuttle S/R Machine Design

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Contd.

The S/R machine picks up the item to be stored from the I/O point, loads it into the first shuttle, and moves to the retrieval location. After reaching the retrieval location, the second shuttle is positioned to pickup the item to be retrieved. After retrieval, the S/R machine positions the first shuttle and deposits the load. The S/R machine then returns to the I/O point. The operation can easily be seen as a single command operation plus a small travel time for repositioning the S/R machine between the retrieval and storage (as well as the additional pickup and deposit time associated with the second load). Therefore, the S/R machine now operates as an R/S machine performing a retrieval first then a storage in a dual command cycle.

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Contd.

With two shuttles, the R/S machine is able to perform a dual command cycle at one location in the rack. This operation is accomplished by first retrieving the load onto the empty shuttle, transferring the second shuttle into position, and storing the load into the empty location in the rack. To perform these operations, the R/S machine must move the second shuttle into position after the first shuttle has completed the retrieval. Due to the small distance involved, the R/S machine will use a slower creep speed for positioning, but this travel time is generally small. Furthermore, an amount of creep time is usually included in the pickup and deposit time to account for this required positioning. A second design characteristic is that additional clearance beyond the first and last row and column of the rack must be provided for over travel of the R/S machine to accommodate both shuttle mechanisms.

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Throughput Improvement

To estimate the throughput improvement by the dual shuttle system over existing designs, we use the expressions for single command and dual command cycle times developed by Bozer and White. The assumptions taken for the new design are following:The rack is considered to be a continuous rectangular pick face where the I/O point is located at the lower left-hand corner of the rack. The rack length and height, as well as the S/R machine velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions, are known. The S/R machine travels simultaneously in the horizontal and vertical directions. In calculating the travel time, constant velocities are used for horizontal and vertical travel. A creep speed is used for repositioning the dual shuttle.

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Contd.
Pickup and deposit times associated with load handling are assumed constant and, therefore, these could be easily added into the cycle time expressions. The S/R machine operates either on a single or dual command basis, i.e., multiple stops in the aisle are not allowed. Bozer and White have developed expected cycle time expressions for single and dual command cycles. They assumed randomized storage and FCFS processing of both storages and retrievals. The following equations were developed:-

1.

E ( SC ) expected single command travel time


1 b2 3

1 T

2.

E ( TB ) expected travel between time for dual command cycle =


1 3 2 1 b3 T 1 b 6 30

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Contd.
3. E ( DC ) expected dual command travel time
E ( SC ) E ( TB )
4 3

1 b2 2

1 b3 30

where vh (vv) = horizontal (vertical) travel velocity L (H) = length (height) of the rack ; time to reach the end of the rack from the I/O point L
th tv

vh H vv

; time to reach the top of the rack from the I/O point

T = max (th , tv); normalization factor b = min (th/T , tv/T); rack shape factor
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Contd.

4.

The travel time expression for the R/S machine performing a dual command cycle will be E(SC) plus the creep time, tc, required to reposition the second shuttle in front of the rack opening. This creep time, tc, can be approximated by w/th, where w is the width of a rack opening. Then, the expected dual command cycle time for the R/S machine, E(DC)r/s, is given by E(DC)r/s = E(SC) + tc Assuming b = 1, T = 1.0, tc = 0.0111 minutes, tp/d = 0.2 minutes E(DC)r/s = 1.3333 + 0.0111 = 1.3444 CTr/s = 1.3444 + 4(0.2) = 2.1444 minutes r/s = 2(60 / 2.1444) = 55.95 operations per hour E(DC)s/r = 1.8 minutes CTs/r = 1.8 + 4(0.2) = 2.6 minutes s/r = 2(60 / 2.6) = 46.15 operations per hour

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Contd.
5.

Thus, the throughput improvement for the R/S machine over a FCFS S/R dual command operation is given by: s/ r 55. 95 46.15 r / s r / s * 100% * 100% 21. 24% s/ r 46.15

The above calculations clearly show the throughput improvement for the R/S machine is 22%

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Computational Analysis

The AS/RS Analysis is to perform simple AS/RS computations and obtain the productivity of the system for Random Storage (Single Class) or Dedicated Storage. where the warehouse is divided into three classes - Fast, Medium or Slow.
The Software has three modules. Random Storage_single aisle ABC Storage_single aisle The System Configuration Note: The System Configuration Module will not function if either Random Storage_single aisle or ABC Storage_single aisle Analysis has not already been performed. This is because, it requires input in the form of productivity from one either the Random Storage_single aisle or the ABC Storage_single aisle Analysis Module.

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How do you Start?

The form accepts inputs from the user and performs the computations and throws up the output values. There are three buttons on the home page that take you to each of these three modules. Click on any of the 3 buttons to enter an interactive form. These three buttons are part of a Java Applet that performs the AS/RS Computations

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Random Storage_Single Aisle

This option computes the Cycle Time Values for Single Class based storage or random storage. All values are calculated for a single aisle. All you need to do is enter the following inputs and then click on the ' Compute Cycle Times' Button right at the bottom

Make sure everything is in Metric Units.

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Input Parameters:

Horizontal Velocity :- Enter the Horizontal Velocity of the AS/RS machine in meters/second Vertical Velocity :- Enter the Vertical Velocity of the AS/RS machine in meters/second Max. Hor. Travel Distance :- Maximum Horizontal Travel Distance in meters Max. Ver. Travel Distance :- Maximum Vertical Travel Distance in meters Shuttle Operation :- The time taken for a single Shuttle Operation in seconds Fraction_Single Cycles - Percentage of Single Cycles System Uptime :- Percentage of Time the system is expected to work or the Uptime of the machine as a percentage value Once you press the 'Compute Cycle Times' Button, the following outputs will appear on the form

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Output Parameters:

Fraction_Dual Cycles :- This is the percentage of Dual Cycles that the AS/RS is expected to operate. This value is always equal to (1-percentage of single cycles) Max. Hor. Travel Time :- Maximum Horizontal Travel Time Max. Ver. Travel Time :- Maximum Vertical Travel Time Normalization Factor :- Maximum of the Horizontal and Vertical Travel Times used a Scaling or Normalizing Factor Shape Factor :- Ratio of the Maximum vertical travel time to the horizontal travel time if Maximum Horizontal travel time is greater than Maximum Vertical Travel Time. Otherwise, it is the ratio of the Maximum Horizontal Travel Time to Maximum Vertical Travel Time. Note : If this ratio = Shape Factor is equal to 1, we say the rack is "square-in-time" E(SCT) :- Expected Single Command Cycle Time E(DCT) :- Expected Dual Command Cycle Time E(CT) :- Expected Cycle Time Pallets handled per hour :- Number of Pallets handled per hour which indicates the productivity of the AS/RS

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Example: Random Storage_single aisle

given the information below 1.Horizontal Velocity =2.5(m/s) 2.Vertical Velocity =1(m/s) 3.Max.Hor.Travel Distance =80(m) 4.Max.Ver.Travel Distance =24(m) 5.Shuttle Operation =10 (s) 6.Fraction_single Cycles =0.5 7.System Uptime =0.97

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Output:-

Based on the input data,the formulas and numerical computation are:1. 2. Fraction_dual Cycles =1-fraction_single Cycles=1-.5=0.5(fraction) Max.Hor.Travel Time =Max.Hor.Travel Distance/Horizontal Velocity=80/2.5=32(s)

3.
4.

Max.Ver.Travel Time =Max.Ver.Travel Distance/Vertical Velocity=24/1=24(s)


Normalization Factor =Max{(Max.Hor.Travel Time),(Max.Ver.Travel Time)}=Max{32,24}=32(s)

5.

Shape Factor =Min{(Max.Hor.Travel Time/Normalization Factor),(Max.Ver.Travel Time /Normalization Factor)}=Min{1,0.75}=0.75(dimentionless)

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6. E(SCT) ={1+(Shape Factor^2/3)}*Normalization Factor+2*shuttle operation ={1+(0.75^2/3)}*32+2*10=58(s) 7. E(DCT) =(4/3+shape factor^2/2-Shape factor^3/30)*Normalization Factor+4*shuttle operation =(4/3+0.75^2/2-0.75^3/30)*32+4*10=91.22(s) 8. E(CT) ={(E(SCT)*fraction_single cycles)+(E(DTC)*fraction_dual cycles)} ={(58*0.5)+(91.22*0.5)}=74.61(s) 9. Pallets handled per hour ={3600*(fraction_single cycles*1+ fraction_dual cycles*2)*System Uptime/E(CT)} = {3600*(0.5*1+0.5*2)*0.97/74.61}=70.21(pallets/hour)

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ABC Storage_single Aisle

The Second Option allows you to compute the Cycle Time Values for Dedicated Storage where the warehouse is divided into classes. The Maximum Number of Classes that the software can handle at the moment is three. So make sure you do not have more than 3 classes . All the values are to be entered as Metric units. The inputs are similar to the Cycle Times Option except for additional Classbased inputs. As in the case of Cycle Times , all values are calculated for a single aisle and therefore the productivity here is single aisle productivity. Here if you would like to use the input values you already did for Single Class Cycle Time Analysis, just click on the button that says " Transfer basic parameters from(1)" and the input values will be taken from the Random Storage_single aisle Module.

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Input Parameters:

Horizontal Velocity - Enter the Horizontal Velocity of the AS/RS machine in meters/second Vertical Velocity - Enter the Vertical Velocity of the AS/RS machine in meters/second Max. Hor. Travel Distance - Maximum Horizontal Travel Distance in meters Max. Ver. Travel Distance - Maximum Vertical Travel Distance in meters Shuttle Operation - The time taken for a single Shuttle Operation in seconds Fraction_Single Cycles - Percentage of Single Cycles System Uptime - Percentage of Time the system is expected to work or the Uptime of the machine as a percentage value Number of Classes - Number of Storage Classes

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Contd.

Important: If you choose the Number of Classes as 2, some of the output values will be presented as non-available. Fraction of Space of A - The percentage of warehouse space that stores Class A items Fraction of Space of B - The percentage of warehouse space that stores Class B items Fraction of Activity of A - The percentage of activity of A Fraction of Activity of B - The percentage of activity of B After the inputs have been entered or transferred as the case may be , Click on the button "Compute Values" and the following outputs are displayed in the text boxes.

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Output Parameters:

Fraction_Dual Cycles - This is the percentage of Dual Cycles that the AS/RS is expected to operate. This value is always equal to (1-percentage of single cycles) Max. Hor. Travel Time - Maximum Horizontal Travel Time Max. Ver. Travel Time - Maximum Vertical Travel Time Normalization Factor - Maximum of the Horizontal and Vertical Travel Times used a Scaling or Normalizing Factor Shape Factor - Ratio of the Maximum vertical travel time to the horizontal travel time if Maximum Horizontal travel time is greater than Maximum Vertical Travel Time. Otherwise, it is the ratio of the Maximum Horizontal Travel Time to Maximum Vertical Travel Time.

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Contd.

Note : If this ratio = Shape Factor is equal to 1, we say the rack is "square-intime" Speed Ratio - Ratio of the Horizontal Velocity to the Vertical Velocity. E(SCT) - Expected Single Command Cycle Time E(DCT) - Expected Dual Command Cycle Time E(CT) - Expected Cycle Time Pallets handled per hour - Number of Pallets handled per hour which indicates the productivity of the AS/RS Fraction of Space of C - The percentage of warehouse space that stores Class C items Fraction of Activity of C - The percentage of activity of C S_dim of A - Small dimension of A region. L_dim of A - Large dimension of A region. S_dim of AB - Small dimension of A region and B region. L_dim of AB - Large dimension of A region and B region.
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Contd.

Area_A - Area of A region. Area_AB - Area of A region and B region. Area_B - Area of B region. Area_C - Area of C region. ESCT_A - Expected Single Command Cycle Time of A region. EDCT_A - Expected Dual Command Cycle Time of A region. ESCT_B - Expected Single Command Cycle Time of B region. ESCT_C - Expected Single Command Cycle Time of C region Wt. Avg. Cycle Time SC - Weighted Average Cycle Time of Single Command. Wt. Avg. Cycle Time DC - Weighted Average Cycle Time of Dual Command ESCT_AB - Expected Single Command Cycle Time of A region and B region. Avg. Cycle Time-Class Based - Average Cycle Time of Class Based Pallets handled per hour - Class Based - Number of Pallets handled per hour which indicates the productivity of the AS/RS. Productivity Increase - Percentage Improvement.
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Example of ABC Storage_single aisle

given the information below 1. Horizontal velocity = 2.5(m/s) 2. Vertical velocity = 1(m/s) 3. Max.Hor.Travel Distance = 80(m) 4. Max.Ver.Travel Distance = 24(m) 5. Shuttle Operation = 10(s) 6. Fraction_single cycles = 0.5 7. System Uptime =0.97 8. Number of classes =3 9. Fraction of space of A = 0.25 10.Fraction of activity A = 0.8 11.Fraction of space of B = 0.5 12.Fraction of activity B = 0.15
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Output:-

Based on the input data, the formulas and numerical computation are:1. Fraction_dual cycles =(1-fraction_single cycles) =1-.5=0.5 2. Max.Hor.Travel time = max.hor.travel distance/horizontal velocity=80/2.5=32(s)

3. Max.Ver.Travel time = (max.ver.travel distance/vertical velocity) =24/1=24(s)


4. Normalization factor = max{(Max.Hor.Travel time),(Max.ver.Travel time)}=MAX{32,24}=32(s)

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Contd.

5. Shape factor = MIN{(Max.Hor.Travel time/normalization factor),(Max.ver.Travel time /normalization factor)}=MIN{}=0.75 6. Speed ratio = horizontal velocity/Vertical velocity=2.5/1=2.5 7. E(SCT) ={1+(Shape Factor^2/3)}*Normalization Factor+2*shuttle operation ={1+(0.75^2/3)}*32+2*10=58(s) 8. E(DCT) =(4/3+shape factor^2/2-Shape factor^3/30)*Normalization Factor+4*shuttle operation=(4/3+0.75^2/2-0.75^3/30)*32+4*10=91.22(s) 9. E(CT) ={(E(SCT)*fraction_single cycles)+(E(DTC)*fraction_dual cycles)}={(58*0.5)+(91.22*0.5)}=74.61(s)
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Contd.

10. Pallets handled per hour ={3600*(fraction_single cycles*1+ fraction_dual cycles*2)*SysteUptime/E(CT)}={3600*(0.5*1+0.5*2)*0.97/74.61}=70.21(pallets/hour)


11. Fraction of space C =1-(Fraction of space of A+Fraction of space of B)=1-(0.25+0.5) = 0.25 12. Fraction of activity C =1-(Fraction of activity A+Fraction of activity B)=1(.8+.15)=.05 13. Area_A =(max.hor.travel distance*max.ver.travel distance*Fraction of space of A)=(80*24*0.25)=480 sq.m 14. Area _AB ={(Fraction of space of A+Fraction of space of B)*max.hor.travel distance*max.ver.travel distance}={(0.25+0.5)*80*24}=1440 sq m
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Contd.
15. Area _B =(max.hor.travel distance*max.ver.travel distance*Fraction of space of B)=(80*24*0.5)=960 sq m 16. S_dim of A ={(area_A/Speed ratio)^0.5}=13.86(m) assumed to be height

17. L_dim of A =(S_dim of A*Speed ratio)=(13.86*2.5)=34.65(m) assumed to be length


18. S_dim of AB ={(area_AB/Speed ratio)^0.5}={(1440/2.5)^0.5}=24(m) assumed to be height 19. L_dim of AB =(S_dim of AB*Speed ratio)=(24*2.5)=60(m) assumed to be length
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Contd.

20. Area_ C ={1-(Fraction of space of A+Fraction of space of B)* max.hor.travel distance*max.ver.travel distance} =480 sq.m 21. ESCT_A ={(4*L_dim of A/3)/Horizontal Velocity+2*Shuttle operation}={(4*34.65/3)/2.5+2*10}=38.48(s) Assumed A is within the square in time portion of the rack 22. EDCT_A ={(1.8)* L_dim of A/Horizontal velosity}+4* Velocity*Shuttle operation=64.95(s)

23. ESCT_B ={(ESCT_AB-2*Shuttle operation)-(Area_A/Area_AB)*(ESCT_A2*Shuttle operation)}/(Area_A/Area_AB)+2*Shuttle operation=58.76(s)

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Contd.
24. Wt.Avg.Cycle Time SC = ((Fraction of activity A*ESCT_A) + (Fraction of activity B*ESCT_B) + (Fraction of activity C*ESCT_C)) = ((0.8*38.48) + (0.15* 58.76) + (0.05*76)) =43.4 25. ESCT_C = ((ESCT ((AREA_AB/(Max. Hor. Travel Distance * Max. Ver. Travel Distance))*ESCT_AB)) / (AREA_C/(Max. Hor. Travel Distance * Max.Ver. Travel Distance)) = (( 58 (1440/80*24)) * 52)/(480/(80*24)) = 76(s) 26. Wt.Avg.Cycle Time DC = (( EDCT (Shuttle operation *4)) * Travel_red_sc + (Shuttle operation *4) = ((91.22 (10*4)) * 0.6158 + (10*4) = 71.54 (s) where Travel_red_sc = ((Wt.Avg.Cycle Time SC (Shuttle operation * 2))/(( ESCT (Shuttle operation *4)) = ((43.4 (10*2))/ ((58 (10*2)) = 0.6158

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Contd.
27. ESCT_AB = ((4*(L_dim of AB / Hor.vel.))/3 + 2* Shuttle operation = ((4* (60/2.5))/3 + 2*10 =52((s) Assumed AB is within the square in time portion of the track 28. Avg. Cycle Time Based = (Wt.Avg.Cycle Time SC * Fraction_Single Cycles ) + (Wt.Avg.Cycle Time DC * Fraction_Dual Cycles ) = (43.4 * 0.5) + (71.54 * 0.5) = 57.47 (s) .29. Pallets handled per hour-class Based = 3600 * (Fraction_Single Cycles *1 + Fraction_Dual Cycles *2) * System Uptime /Avg. Cycle Time Class Based = 3600 * (0.5*1 + 0.5*2)*.97/57.47 = 91.14 (pallets /hrs.)

30. Productivity Increase = ((Pallets handled per hour-class Based Pallets handled per hr.) / Pallets handled per hr.) * 100 = ((91.14 70.21) / 70.21) =29.81(percent)
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System Configuration

This is the third option available in case a user wants to determine the productivity of a system with different number of aisles and columns. The System Configuration takes the required productivity and required storage capacity in the form of user inputs . It then determines if the requirements can be met with the parameters given and then informs the user in case the productivity or storage capacity is out of range. If indeed either the productivity or the storage capacity is out of range , a small window with the warning message is displayed and the user can change some values in the System Configuration analysis module and recomputed the outputs. The Aisle Length and Aisle Height is automatically taken from the Random Storage_single aisle module. The User has the option of importing values from either the Random Storage_single aisle module or the ABC Storage_single aisle Module. All the user needs to do is click on any of the two buttons 'Transfer Parameters and Productivity from(1)' or 'Transfer Parameters and Productivity from(2)' .

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Input Parameters:

Number of Aisles Number of Sides Rack Length Rack Height Length of Modular Pallet Space (including Clearance & Structure) Distance in the horizontal dimension occupied by one pallet position including all clearances and structures. Height of Modular Pallet Space (including Clearance & Structure) Distance in the vertical dimension occupied by one pallet position including all clearances and structures.

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Contd.

Degradation Factor - A percentage value which accounts for any degradation in the AS/RS Total Storage Capacity Needed - Total number of position they need in the system. Storage Capacity Tolerance - Fractional tolerance plus or minus. Total Productivity required - Total number of pallets to be handled in the system per hour. Productivity Tolerance - Fractional tolerance plus or minus.

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Output Parameters:

Single Aisle Productivity - This value is automatically transferred from Cycle Times Module by default unless the user specifies otherwise using the buttons at the bottom of the window Number of Columns - The ratio of the Rack Length to the Length of Modular Pallet Space. Number of Levels - The number of positions in one side of aisle. Storage Capacity - This returns the Calculated Storage Capacity for the Values entered Productivity Obtained - This returns the Productivity in terms of pallets handled per hour

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Example of System Configuration

given the information below:1. No. of Aisles =2.0 2. No. of Sides = 2.0 3. Rack Length = 80 (m) 4. Rack Height = 24 (m) 5. Length of Modular Pallet Space = 1.5 (m) 6. Height of Modular Pallet Space = 1.5 (m) 7. Degradation factor = 0.9 8. Total Storage Capacity needed = 100(pallet spaces) 9. Storage Capacity Tolerance =0.1 10.Total Productivity required = 100(pallet/hr.) 11.Productivity Tolerance = 0.1

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Output:Based on the input data, the formulas and numerical computation are:1. Single Aisle Productivity = Pallets handled per hr. from Random Storage _ single Aisle Approach OR Pallets handled per hour-class Based from ABC Storage _single Aisle 2. No. of Columns = Math floor (Rack Length / Length of Modular Pallet Space) = 80/1.5 = 53

3. No. of Levels = Math floor (Rack Height / Height of Modular Pallet Space) = 24/1.5 = 16
4. STORAGE CAPACITY = ( No. of Aisles * No. of Sides * No. of Columns * No. of Levels) = (2 * 2 * 53 * 16) =3392(pallet spaces)

5. PRODUCTIVITY OBTAINED = (Single Aisle Productivity * No. of Aisles * Degradation factor) = (70.21*2*0.9) = 126.38(pallet/hr.) (take Random Storage _single aisle for eg.)

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The formula for Storage Capacity and Productivity analysis :

If STORAGE CAPACITY < Total Storage Capacity needed * ( 1- Storage Capacity Tolerance) Then insufficient Storage Capacity If STORAGE CAPACITY > Total Storage Capacity needed * ( 1- Storage Capacity Tolerance) Then Exceed Storage Capacity If PRODUCTIVITY OBTAINED< Total Productivity required * ( 1- Productivity Tolerance) Then insufficient PRODUCTIVITY If PRODUCTIVITY OBTAINED> Total Productivity required * ( 1- Productivity Tolerance) Then Exceed PRODUCTIVITY
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Conclusions

Throughput improvements in the range of 22% can be obtained using the Dual Shuttle S/R ma command cycle relative to dual command cycles with a single shuttle system. With the dual shuttle design, travel between is virtually eliminated for a dual command cycle. Decide the parameters of AS/RS Systems by calculating productivity & Storage Capacity.

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References

1. 2.

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THANKS

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