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EA has introduced as an alternative to CA deficiencies. In contrast to CA, it does not consider L1 interference as the sole cause of committing errors.

Although it acknowledges L1 interference as one of the sources of errors, it also considers the role of intralingual and developmental errors.

According to Lightbown and Spada, L1 individually doesn't influence on L2 learning, there are other factors involved in SLA. As learners with different Lg backgrounds often make the same kinds of errors & some of them are similar to those made by first lg learners we can consider those errors as learner's efforts to discover the structure of the target lg.

According to Richards errors may occur by wrong application of learning strategies or faulty teaching techniques, not L1 interference solely. He calls these types of errors intralingual & developmental. Dulay & Burt put learner's errors or goofs into the following categories:

Interference-like goofs: it refers to those errors which reflect the structure of L1 that we cannot find it in monolingual learners. L1 developmental goofs: errors which are found in monolingual children acquiring their L1. Ambiguous goofs: these kinds of errors can be categorized as either interference-like goofs or L1 developmental goofs. Unique goofs: errors which are absent in both learner's L1 structure and monolingual children of target language.

Corder names three types of errors according to their sources: A . interlingual errors: caused by L1 interference. Ex: I have a lot of book. B. intralingual errors: caused by learner's overgeneralization of particular grammatical rules. Ex: he goed to school in the morning. C . errors which are caused by faulty teaching techniques. Ex: the young men were walking toward them.

Interlingual errors: they result from transfer of phonological, morphological, grammatical and stylistic elements of the learner's L1 to the learning of L2. 1. Transfer of phonological elements of L1: learners transfer the phonological features of their L1 directly to those of target lg. Ex: my father is a dentist. 2.Transfer of morphological elements: some errors may cause by transfer of morphological features of L1. ex: our cottage has three room. 3.Transfer of grammatical elements: based on the fact that in Persian we can use present simple & continuous interchangeably somehow. Ex:my mom's going to work everyday. Or I go to school now. /miravam/ by itself can be used for both go and to be going to.

4.Transfer of lexico-semantic elements : this kind of error falls into two categories named a) cross association b)false cognate Cross association: when there's only one word in L1 that can be referred into two words in L2. So the learner may use that single word in two senses in L2. Say, the learner may utter: my math book is in my table's drawer (while s/he means desk). other exampels: I got stuck about 1 o'clock in traffic on my way to home (instead of 1 hour). Or I saw him while he was walking with his woman (instead of wife). False cognates: a word which has similar forms in two lges, but with different meanings. Ex: I have experimented ( instead of experienced) such this situation be4. or my father bought a new machine last week.

5.Transfer of stylistic and cultural elements: it refers to the transfer of stylistic and cultural elements of L1. According to the cultural transfer, as far as we know, we Iranians overuse in using compliments. According to stylistic transfer we may utter Mr. Teacher is coming now. Or he R our teacher. Intralingual & developmental errors: these kinds of errors may cause by the influence of one target lg item into another. Ex: he is comes. These kinds of errors reflect the learner's competence at a particular stage of second lg development.

We can divide these errors into six categories: Overgeneralization, ignorance of rule restriction, false analogy, hyperextension, hypercorrection and faulty categorization.

1. Overgeneralization (also called over-extension or analogy) it's a common process in both L1 and L2 learning, in which a learner extends a grammatical rule beyond its accepted form. Ex: I don't know where does she live. 2. Ignorance of rule restriction some learners may ignore exceptions of L2 rules and as the result they would utter sentences like: I've already heard two good news.

3. False analogy it's quite similar to overgeneralization. It refers to the use of certain elements in inappropriate context through analogy. Here, the learner has mastered some rules but s/he is unaware of its application in real situation. Ex: women should stay home and grow up children. 4. Hyperextension refers to the extension of a rule to areas where it is not applicable. Ex: the apple smelled freshly. 5. Hypercorrection it happens when the speaker of nonstandard variety attempts to use standard variety. Ex: he told you and I 6. Faulty categorization refers to incorrect categorization of target language items by the learner. Ex: : Mike enjoys to swim.

Teacher induced errors: also called transfer of training, result from pedagogical procedures employed by the teacher. A teacher may unintentionally mislead his students by the way he presents teaching materials. Ex: the cat is at the table.
Language learning strategies: overgeneralization, transfer of rules, simplification. The first two were explained earlier. Here we go through a definition of simplification also called redundancy reduction. The learner may reduce TL rules to a simpler system in order to decrease the learning difficulties of TL. Ex: I am student English Language.

Communication strategies: here learners in order to their communication needs may use elements which are not linguistically appropriate for the context. Ex: sorry, I late.
Common communication strategies are: 1. Avoidance strategy learner may avoid taking risks in using difficult items. It has two types: a)topic avoidance: learner simply avoids talking about concepts which are unknown to him. b)message abandonment: at fist s/he starts talking about an issue, s/he finds him/herself unable to continue and stops in mid-utterance.

2. Language switch here the learner uses native lg items in En. Ex: today, we had kalle Pache as breakfast.
3.Prefabricated patterns the learners may memorize some structures in a formulaic way without having the knowledge of components of the phrase. Ex: how much does it cost? 4.Appeal to authority learner may ask a native speaker for the correct form of a word or phrase.


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Presented by: Samar Tabatabaii