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PowerPoint to accompany

Technology of Machine Tools


6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

CNC Machining Centers


Unit 78

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Objectives
Describe the development of the machining center Identify the types and construction of machining centers Explain the operation of the machining center Understand a basic CNC program for a machining center

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CNC Machining Centers


Industrial surveys in 1960's showed smaller machine components requiring several operations tool long time to complete
Part sent to several machines before finished There was much "operator intervention" during machining process

In late 1960s and early 70s, begin to design machine that would perform several operations and do 90% of machining on one machine

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Types of Machining Centers


Three types: horizontal, vertical and universal Factors to determine type and size 1. Size and weight of largest piece machined 2. Maximum travel of three primary axes 3. Maximum speeds and feeds available 4. Horsepower of spindle 5. Number of tools automatic tool changer can hold

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Two Types of Horizontal Machining Centers


Traveling-column
One or usually two tables where work mounted
Column and cutter move toward work on one table while operator changes workpiece on other table

Fixed-column
Equipped with pallet (removable table)
After workpiece machined, pallet and workpiece moved off receiver onto shuttle; shuttle rotated, bringing new pallet into position for shuttle and finished work pallet into position for unloading

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Vertical Machining Center


Saddle-type construction with sliding bedways that use a sliding vertical head instead of quill movement Generally used to machine flat parts held in vise or simple fixture Versatility increased by addition of rotary accessories

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Universal Machining Center


Combines features of vertical and horizontal machining centers
Spindle can be programmed in both vertical and horizontal positions
Allows for machining all side of a part in one setup

Useful for small and medium batch parts Has additional accessories such as indexible pallets and rotary-tilt tables

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Advantages of Universal Machining Centers


Eliminate handling and waiting time between machines Reduced number of fixtures and setups Reduced programming time Improved product quality Less work-in-process (WIP) inventory Faster product delivery to customers Lower manufacturing costs

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Main Operative Parts


Column

X axis

Main operative parts of both vertical and horizontal centers basically same. Position of machining spindle determines whether it is classified as vertical Saddle or horizontal.
Z axis

Y axis

Bed
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Primary Components of a Machining Center

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Machining Center Accessories


Number of accessories available
Two types
Those that improve efficiency or operation of machine tool Those that involve holding or machining workpiece

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Torque Control Machining


Calculates torque from measurements at spindle drive motor Increases productivity by preventing and sensing damage to cutting tool
Torque measured when machine turning, not cutting and value stored in memory As cutting begins, stored value subtracted from reading at motor giving net cutting torque
Goes higher, computer reduces feedrate, turns on coolant or even stops cycle

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Automatic Tool Changers: Large Capacity Horizontal-Type


Hold up to 200 tools
Identified by either tool number or storage pocket number Held in storage chain

Process: (~ 11 seconds)
When one operation being performed, tool required for next moved to pick-up position Tool change arm removes and holds it; exchanges when operation complete; returns tool to storage

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Automatic Tool Changers: Smaller-Capacity Vertical, Disk-Type


Holds from 12 to 24 tools Next tool selected upon completion of machining operation (~ 2.5 to 6 seconds)
Tool carriage mounted on shuttle that slides carriage next to tool spindle Tool pocket aligned, spindle orients toolholder and tool lock releases Tool changer rotates to number called, tool lock energized and carriage slides out of way

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Tools and Toolholders


Wide variety of cutting tools Conventional milling machines, cutting tool cuts 20% of time Studies show machining center time
20% milling, 10% boring, and 70% hole-making in average machine cycle Cutting time can be as high as 75%

Large consumption of disposable tools caused by increased tool use

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face milling cutters

two-flute end mill four-flute end mill

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Stub Drills
high-helix drill

core drill

oil hole drill


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Taps
gun
stub flute

spiral flute fluteless


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rose reamer fluted reamer

carbide-tipped reamer
Single-point boring tools are used to enlarge a hole and bring it to location.

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Combination Tools
If machining center has helical interpolation capability, one tool can perform drilling, chamfering, and threading operations in one cycle
Solid-carbide combination drill/thread tool with drill tip on end, chamfer located at correct length for selected application
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Sequence of operations for combination tool, the Thriller


1. point produce through hole or a blind 3. Next, thread is formed by interpolation Tool 4. 2. Drill On Chamfer fed is completion brought radially iscan cut, out into of and radially the wall tool cycle, of from ishelical hole retracted the wall, to tool full to approximately is thread center retracted depth of hole no deeper two times tool diameter cycle during one full turn (360), while moving during hole 2 out during of thread of the a hole turn of pitches athan (180, turn from (180) while the while bottom moving moving of the of thread hole of a one thread Z axis. pitch thread in pitch Z axis inpitch the in Z axis.

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Toolholders
Must have compatibility in toolholders in order for wide variety of cutting tools to be inserted into machine spindle quickly and accurately Most common toolholder has V-flange and self-releasing taper shank
Size (range from No. 30 to 60) determined by machine capacity and designed horsepower

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Common Toolholder

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Variety of Toolholders

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Work-Holding Devices
Standard step clamp
Used to hold down flat, large parts Quick-release clamp good when clamps have to be temporarily moved to machine edge

Table plate
Flat aluminum plate bolted to machine table Dowel pin and tapped holes machined into plate to permit fastening vises or clamps
More flexible than limit of table T-slots

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Plain-style precision vises


Keyed directly to table slots
Make positioning and clamping accurate and simple

When machining multiple identical parts, matched set of qualified vises can be used
Qualified vises used when long part requires support on both end to maintain parallelism

When using double-station cluster vises; total of up to 20 parts held for machining operation

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Vise jaw systems


Set of master jaws placed in vise and items snapped into position
Parallels, modular workstops, angle plates, V-jaws, and machinable soft jaws

Add versatility and increase flexibility of a precision vise Can be used in both single-station and doublestation vises

CNC fixtures
Used to accurately locate many similar parts and hold them securely for machining

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Programming Procedures
Programming can vary slightly from machine to machine so important to follow manual supplied with machine Two classes concentrated on in text:
Bench-top teaching model
Inexpensive and easy to operate for students

Standard machine model

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Bench-Top Teaching Machines


Simple programming example explained in detail in text as was done in Unit 75 Program notes plus full program sequence with explanations to help understand code Refer to G-code and M-code charts in Unit 75

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Machining Center Setup


Before using machining center, operator needs to become familiar with control panel and operational procedures
Different modes and how to use menus, how to establish machine zero, set tool length offsets and test run program

When machine powered up, need to zero out all axes so control know location of machine home position

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Setting Part Zero


Each part has established part zero
Not same as machine zero

Using jog mode and edge finder or dial indicator, locate part zero position in X and Y axes Work offset distance (position shift offset) is distance traveled from machine home
Entered on control's work coordinate page Distances traveled for X and Y entered, while Z axis distance left at zero

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Setting Tool Length Offset


Start with empty automatic tool changer
Load tool #1 by indexing to proper location of tool carriage Tool placed directly into spindle and locked Use jog mode to touch off tool to Z0 of part Distance traveled is Z tool offset and listed on control offset page under offset for tool #1

Process repeated with each additional tool

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Program Test Run


Never machine a part without test running program first Equipped with graphics display
Allow operator to see steps on control screen without cutting part

Without graphics display


Dry run program without part in machine Use step/single block mode and feedrate override

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Standard-Size Machining Center


Another full example of a new part that introduces additional machining cycles
Circular and fixed drilling cycles

Program notes and full programming sequence shown in text with explanation of programming steps Refer to G- and M-code charts in Unit 75
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