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Biology 211 Introductory Vertebrate Zoology

The functional anatomy of vertebrates, viewed with respect to evolution and development.
Bill Taylor wdtaylor@uwaterloo.ca B2-242A ex 32556

Cheryl Duxbury cduxbury@uwaterloo.ca ESC - 357F ex 36450

Course Outline
1) the vertebrate body plan & vertebrate characteristics 2) the origin of vertebrates 3) brief history of vertebrate evolution and introduction to the vertebrate classes 4) early embryonic development 5) organ systems - integument, skeleton, teeth - muscles - digestive system - respiratory system - circulatory system - excretory system - reproductive system - endocrine system - nervous system - sense organs

Communication
Course materials (course notes, course schedule, quizzes) are, or will be, posted on the UW-Ace website. There is also a Discussion Forum there for you to ask me or your fellow students questions, share information, etc. This is also where you can view your grades.

You can consult me in person in my office or by e-mail, but if you ask me questions by e-mail that everyone would like to hear the answer to, Ill refer you to the Discussion Forum. The lecture itself is a good place to ask questions!

The Lab
Full lab schedule, with 9 labs designed to reinforce lectures and let you examine different vertebrates. The first labs are during the second week of term. Major topics include: the trout (general, as in Biol 110) embryology the integument 2 labs on skeletons ---------------------------------------------------------------- 2 labs on the fetal pig (mostly on digestive, circulatory, excretory and reproductive system) 2 labs on the shark (circulatory and nervous systems and sense organs).

Things to Buy
1) Textbook: Kardong, Vertebrates, 5th edition. $135 (Previously, Hildebrand, Analysis of Vertebrate Structure, 5th ed. Also OK.) You may want to share it with a friend, but you will need it for labs as well as for studying. 2) lab manual (bookstore). 3) dissecting kit. 4) lab coat.

Course Difficulty and Grades


The course is not conceptually difficult, but does require the learning of many new terms. There are no pre-requisites. It is a logical next course after Biol 110, but Biol 110 is not required. It will help you with other courses such as Human Anatomy, Animal Physiology, Evolution, and Embryology. Your grade on the lecture part of the course will be based on a mid-term exam (25%) and a final exam (40%). Your grade on the lab portion of the course (35%) will be assessed in lab, largely on quizzes at the end of each lab.

Why take a course in Vertebrate Zoology?


1. Vertebrates are one of the most important and abundant groups of animals on earth. 2. We are vertebrates, so when we learn about vertebrates we learn about ourselves and about the animal models most useful in medical research. 3. Vertebrates include most of the animals we use in agriculture or wish to manage as natural resources.

4. We know more about the evolution of vertebrates than any other group of animals.

Review on Evolution
KK Chapter 1, pp. 14-29, 195-196. MH Chapter 1, pp. 3-19, 30-31, 70

Process how natural selection works on genetic variation arising from mutation to produce evolutionary change. History the sequence of species over time as seen in the fossil record and as revealed by the comparison of living (extant) species. Often represented by evolutionary trees or cladograms. Classification we classify organisms according to evolutionary history to produce a classification with maximum information content and utility.

Depicting Evolutionary History

KK Fig. 1.2

KK 1.25, H&G inside cover

Cladograms depict branching or speciation


Species belonging to the same genus, family, order, class or phylum should share a unique common ancestor, and comprise all the decendents of that ancestor. Such a group is called monophyletic. Which of these species could be combined in a monophyletic taxon?

B D

extant species

D
A taxon that includes most but not all descendants of an ancestral form is called paraphyletic.

common ancestor

Classification
Species Genus Family Order Class Canis latrans Canis Canidae Carnivora Mammalia

subclass Theria

subphylum Vertebrata

Phylum

Chordata

Why are some animals, or parts of animals, alike?


Similarity of appearance or homoplasy can reflect common ancestry and/or common function. But not necessarily.

(ancestry)

(function)

Constructing correct classifications of animals often means deciding whether structures are homologous.

(appearance) KK 1.12

Adaptation to similar environments may result in similarities that are not because of evolutionary relatedness, but rather adaptation to similar situations or capabilities.

KK Fig. 1.13

Convergent and Parallel Evolution


Convergence: similarity in animals with very
different ancestors due to adaptation to similar environmental conditions, e.g., the fish-like body form of dolphins. Parallelism: similarity in animals with similar but distant ancestors due to adaptation to similar envirommental conditions, e.g., the elongation of the distal part of the limbs of even and odd-toed hoofed mammals (ungulates).

Why do these animals look the same?


Fig. 1-5 from Hildebrand. Parallelism and Convergence

Evolution and Morphology


Homologous structures - evolve from a corresponding structure in a common ancestor. Analogous structures - may appear similar, but similarity is shaped by adaptation to a common function and does not reflect close evolutionary relationship. Vestigial structures - not functional, but represent features functional in ancestors.

Evolution and Development Recapitulation ancestral features are evident in the embryo of a descendent - ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. Paedomorphosis ancestral juvenile features evident in the adult of a descendent. progenesis development of the reproductive system is accelerated in a morphologically juvenile stage. neotany when a somatic feature retains its juvenile form in the adult.

Necturus

Evolution and Development Continued


Sexual Homology - refers to structures derived from the same structure in the embryo, but with different form and function in the adult male and female. Serial Homology -refers to structures which are derived from similar embryonic structures in different embryonic segments.