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Chapter-3(Three) Concepts of Training

Definition of Training: (1 of 3)
Many people think that training of any sort will benefit the company. This assumption is just not true. When a training program is developed without using the training process, disaster usually follows. Such a program is likely to be unrelated to the needs of the company, the employees being trained, both. When training is not designed to address a specific performance improvement opportunity, employees tend to discount its relevance and few change will seen in their performance.

Definition of Training: (2of 3)

According to H.John Bernardin Training is any attempt to improve employee performance on a currently held job or one related to it. Taylor M.H., in his article Training of trainers defined training as a means to bring about a continuous improvement in the quality of work performed, it would equip them with necessary knowledge, skill, abilities and attitude to perform their jobs.

Definitions of Training(3of 3)
Edwin Flippo, the purpose of training is to achieve a change in the behaviour of those trained and to enable them to do their jobs better
Knowledge Skills Attitude

Importance of Training
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Results in an increase in output / productivity Leads to Job Satisfaction / Improved Morale Trained workers need less supervision Make the organization competitive Better cooperation and team-spirit Lesser wastage of material and time Reduces attrition

Objectives of Training
Benefits to Organization 1. Higher Productivity 2. Better Organizational Climate 3. Lesser Supervision 4. Prevents Manpower Obsolescence 5. Economical Use of Material 6. Prevents Accidents 7. Improves Quality 8. Greater Loyalty to Organization 9. Fulfill Future Personnel Needs

Objectives of Training
Benefits to Employees
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Personal Growth Development of New Skills Higher Earning Capacity Helps Cope with Changing Technology Increases Safety

Definition of Education:
Education is typically differentiated from training and development by the types of KSAs developed. Training is generally focused on job-specific KSAs, and education focuses on more general KSAs, related to a persons career or job. This distinction is satisfactory, but education should not be thought of as something that is done only outside the organization.

Teaching Vs Training
Is about educating people, sharing wisdom, making people more knowledgeable.

Is about development and application of knowledge, skills and attitudes for achieving specific objectives



helps employees to do their current jobs.

DEVELOPMENT: help the individual handle future responsibilities.

Training, Development & Education

Training : Basic skill enhancement specific to
a job or task with immediate or short term application

Development : Linked to the overall improvement

of the employees knowledge, skill and attitude and the resultant behaviour over a longer period

Education : Building the ability of the individual

to interpret knowledge. Usually linked to a formal qualification

What is high-leverage training?

Many companies have adopted this broader perspective, which is known as high-leverage training. It: is linked to strategic business goals and objectives. uses an instructional design process to ensure that training is effective. compares or benchmarks the company's training programs against training programs in other companies. creates working conditions that encourage continuous learning.

Models of trainingTraining is a transforming process that requires some input and it turn it produce output in the form of knowledge, skills and attitudes. The three models of training are1. The system model 2. Instructional system development model 3. Transitional model

The system model of trainingIt consists of five phases which should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. the training should achieve the purpose of helping the employees to perform their work to required standards. The steps areEVALUATE EXECUTE DEVELOP DESIGN ANALYSE

1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

ANALYSE-Analyze and identify the training needs-what do they need to learn. DESIGN-It requires developing the objective of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents. DEVELOP-Listing the activities in the training program that ll assist the participants to learn, examining training material, selecting delivery method, validating information to be imparted to. EXECUTE-Its the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. EVALUATE-Evaluating each phase to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance.

Instructional system development model

This model was made to answer the training problems. In it training objectives are designed on the basis of job responsibilities and job description. And on the basis of designed objective ,performance is measured. The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. This model comprises of five stages-






1. 2.

3. 4.


ANALYSIS-This phase consist of training need assesment,job analysis and target audience analysis. Planning-This phase consist of setting goal of the learning,outcome,types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program. DEVELOPMENT-This phase translates design decisions into training material. it consists of developing course material, including handouts,workbooks,visual aids etc. EXECUTION-it focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers,equipments,benches,podiums,food facilities, cooling lighting ,parking and other training accessories. EVALUATION-evaluating whole process.

Transitional model of training

Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. the other loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner lop is executed.









VISION-It focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tell that where the organization sees itself few years down the line.
MISSION-explain the reason of organizational existance.the reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire and inform the employees regarding the organization. VALUES-vision is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. it reflects the deeply hold values of the organization. foe example-social responsibility, excellent customer service



The Training and Development Process

Training The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. The strategic context of training Performance management: the process employers use to make sure employees are working toward organizational goals.


Preliminary steps in preparing a Training & Development Program

Program Content Training & Development Objectives Actual Program Learning Principles

Need Assessment

Skills , Knowledge, Ability of workers

Evaluation Criteria


Training and Development Process

Needs analysis

Instructional design


Implement the program


The Training and Development Process

Needs analysis
Identify job performance skills needed, assess prospective trainees skills, and develop objectives.

Instructional design
Produce the training program content, including workbooks, exercises, and activities.

Presenting (trying out) the training to a small representative audience.

Implement the program

Actually training the targeted employee group.

Assesses the programs successes or failures.