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it is the transmission, reception and processing of information between two or more points using electronic circuit

1837 1844 1850 1876 1878 1895 1899 1901 1912

Telegram(5km) Samuel F.B. Morse Telegram Washington Submarine Telegram Dover<->Calais Telephone Alexander G.Bell Telephone Service (Boston U.S.) Wireless Telegraphy G.Marconi PAT.7777 Wireless Telegraphy The Strait of Dover Wireless Telegraphy The Atlantic Ocean CQD from Titanic All Station , Distress!

1953 1960 1960 1969 1969

1979 1982 1993 1986 2001 2003

TV Color TV Satellite Communication FM Radio ARPANET(Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork) DOD of U.S. Mobile Phone (1G) Internet TCP/IP Mobile Phone (2G) Broadcasting Satellite Mobile Phone (3G) Terrestrial Digital Broadcasting in Japan

Source Info

Transmitter

Medium/ Channel

Receiver

Destination

Noise

Two Major Categories of Information Signals:


1.

Analog Signal


2.

are time-varying voltages or currents that are continuously changing contains an infinite number of values example: human voice or music

Digital Signal
are voltages or currents that change in discrete steps or levels examples: binary-coded numbers or alphanumeric codes

Voice Signal

Video Signal

100

1000

10000

Hz

100

1000

10000

1000000

Hz

Circle

1 sec

1Hz
Circle

2Hz
0

1 sec

Circle

1 sec

4Hz
Circle

1 sec 0

8Hz

0 + 0 + 0 + 0

0 NRZ (Non Return Zero) RZ (Return Zero)

Uni-polar

NRZ (Non Return Zero)

Di-polar

+ 0 RZ ( Return Zero)

Simplex
A B
TV, Radio, Pager etc

Half-Duplex
A

String Phone, Intercom B Handy Talky

Full-Duplex
A B

Telephone,

B B

Point to Point Connection Personal Phone


Point to Multipoint Connection Broadcasting(Radio, TV) Air Interface

C D

Bus Connection LAN( Local Area Network) Ethernet

A D C A B D E F C G

Ring Connection

FDDI(Fiber Distributed Data Interface)

Tree Connection PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network) (Lower Layer)

A C B

Mesh Connection
PSTN( higher layer)

D F

Carrier
Uhiudhsiuhf Nfdnfoidnf Kjdnfk Kjdsnbkjn Dsfnkdnfsd Iuiudshfsfsfds Iu dcsicbdiub

1m

Idiusg Ohe Uih Idie Wiuiu Ediu

2m

10m

SP AMP

SP
AMP

SP
Mod AMP Dem AMP

freq

AMP B

Multiplexing
A

freq

freq

AMP

B
freq

A
freq

SPA AMP
freq

Mod
freq

AMP

Dem

B SP Mod
freq

B
freq

AMP

Dem

AMP

1. Baseband Transmission Baseband Signal (voice etc.) Transmission

2.Carrier Frequency Transmission Baseband Signal (voice etc.) Transmission Modulator Modulated Signal

Receiever

DeModulator

Carrier Frequency Signal

Baseband Signal voice etc.

1. Line Communication guided media which include coaxial cable, twisted pair, optical fibers and waveguides
2. Radio Communications unguided media

Advantages of Digital Over Analog Easier to multiplex Easier to integrate into a switching system Easier to interface with other digital equipments Noise immunity Better performance monitorability Easy to encode, decode, encrypt and scramble

Disadvantages of Digital Over Analog


Large bandwidth Need for synchronization Need for additional equipments Not compatible with existing systems Need for signal conversions (DAC/ADC) Restrictions in wired topology

the transmittal of digital pulses between two or more points in communication system (example: PCM, PAM, PWM , PPM)

Input Source Digital

Destination Digital

DTI
Physical Link

DTI

Input Source Analog

Analog to Digital Converter

Digital to Analog Converter

Destination Analog

transmittal of digitally modulated analog signals (carriers) between two or more points in a communication system (example: ASK, FSK, PSK, QAM)

Input Source Digital

D i g i t a l

D i g i t a l
RF

Destination
Digital

Input Source Analog

Analog to Digital Converter

I n t e r f a c e

Physica l Link

I n t e r f a c e

Digital to Analog Converter

Destination Analog

In digital transmission, there is no analog carrier. In digital transmission, physical link or facility between the transmitter and receiver unlike digital radio which can be either use a physical link or free space.

Input Data

Precoder

Modulator

BPF and Power Amplifier

Channel

BPF and Power Amplifier

Demodulator and Decoder

Outpu t Data

Buffer

Noise

BPF

Analog Carrier Oscillator

Carrier Clock Recovery

Carrier Clock

Precoder performs level conversion and then encodes the incoming data into groups of bits that modulate an analog carrier BPF for filtering and shaping purposes

Power Amplifier for amplification


Buffer acts as constant load to isolate the carrier oscillator from the amplifier Analog Carrier Oscillator generates the carrier Demodulator and Decoder extracts the original source information from the modulated carrier Carrier and Clock Recovery Circuits recovers the analog carrier and digital timing (clock) signals from the incoming modulated wave since they are necessary to perform the demodulation process

highly theoretical study of the efficient use of bandwidth to propagate through electronic communications system used to determine the information capacity

measure of how much information can be propagated through a communication system represents the number of independent symbols that can be carried through a system in a given unit of time (bits per second)

Hartleys Law:

I BW x ts
Where: I information capacity (bps) BW Bandwidth (Hz) ts transmission time (s) Shannons Limit for Information Capacity S S I BW log 2 ( 1 ) or I 3.32 BW log 10 ( 1 ) N N Where I information capacity (bps) BW bandwidth (Hz) S/N Signal-to-noise power ratio

Shannon-Hartley

I 2 BW log2 M
Where M number of signal levels

Signal to Noise Ratio required for an Ideal Channel


S 10 2 log M - 1 N

Baud Rate and Channel Capacity

I S log 2 M
Where I capacity in bps S- baud rate in symbols per second M no. of possible states per symbol

M-ary Encoding term derived from the word binary M simply represents a digit that corresponds to the number of conditions, levels, or combinations possible
N log 2 M 2
N

Where

N number of bits used M no. of conditions, levels

Baud and Minimum Bandwidth


Bit Rate (fb) refers to the rate of change of digital information signal ( bits per second ) Baud Rate rate of change of a signal on the transmission medium after encoding and modulation have occurred
- unit of transmission rate, modulation rate or symbol rate (baud per second or symbol per second)
baud 1 ts

Minimum Nyquist Bandwidth / Minimum Nyquist Frequency minimum theoretical bandwidth necessary to propagate a signal

fb 2 BW
Where fb bit rate (bps) BW ideal Nyquist Bandwidth 2BW highest theoretical bit rate Relationship between Nyquist Frequency and Baud
fb baud N

1. A telephone line has a bandwidth of 3.2 KHz and a S/N of 35 dB. A signal is transmitted down this line using a four-level code. What is the maximum theoretical data rate? 2. A radio channel is to be transmitted at 10 kbps. What absolute minimum bandwidth is required to pass the fastest information change undistorted using a code with 4 possible states? 3. For digital communications, determine the S/N which would be required for an ideal channel with a bandwidth of 2500 Hz. (use M = 2) 4. What is the bandwidth of a telephone channel with a 32dB S/N and a capacity of 30 kbps?

Entropy is a measure of the uncertainty associated with a random variable. The term by itself in this context usually refers to the Shannon entropy, which quantifies, in the sense of an expected value, the information contained in a message, usually in units such as bits. Equivalently, the Shannon entropy is a measure of the average information content one is missing when one does not know the value of the random variable.

Information Measure the information sent from a digital source when the ith message in transmitter is given by

Where: P1= probability of the ith message if b = 2; the unit of information is bits if b = 10; the unit of information is dit/Hartley/decit if b = e; the unit of information is nats/nit/Nepit 1 Hartley = 3.32 bits and1 nat = 1.443 bits Average Information (Entropy) In general, the information content will vary fro message to message because the probability of transmitting the nth message will not be equal. Consequently, we need as average information measure for the source, considering all the possible message we can send.

Relative Entropy The ratio of the entropy of a source to the maximum value the entropy could take for the same source symbol. Where: Hmax = logbN N = total no. of symbols If the symbols have the same probability of occurrence () then the entropy is maximum. Redundancy

Rate of Information

From the given table:


Symbol Probability of Occurrence P(Xi) Time required to transmit the symbol Xi

X1
X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7

0.21
0.14 0.09 0.11 0.15 0.18 0.12

10s
15s 20s 30s 25s 15s 25s

Determine the following: a. Entropy (H) b. Relative Entropy c. Rate of Information