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CHAPTER 8

ETHNIC COMPOSITION OF THE MALAYSIAN POPULATION

Malaysia-plural society of many ethnic groups West Malaysia-Malays,Chinese &Indians. In Sabah & Sarawak-Kadazan, Bajau, Bidayuh, Iban, Kayan, Kenyah and Murut. Bumiputra and non-Bumiputra. The differences between them are often aligned to political, economic, cultural and social differences.

Bumiputras

far

The Bumiputras continue to dominate the agricultural sector. The Chinese and Indians too continue to be predominant in the professions, as accountants, engineers, lawyers etc. Most of the Malays were originally from Indonesia and had migrated to Malaysia from very early times. The Indians were from India and the Chinese came from China.

outnumber Bumiputras

the

non-

SUB-ETHNIC COMMUNITIES
MALAYS Banjar
Bugis

CHINESE Hokien

INDIANS Tamil

Cantonese Malayali

Jawa
Boyan

Hakka
Hailam

Telegu
Sikh

They can also be differentiated according to their economic preoccupations, the place of settlement, language and customs.
One other ethnic group that cannot be ignored is the ABORIGINES. Three main aboriginal tribes are the Negrito, Senoi and indigenous Malay. In each of these tribes are six sub-groups, making a total of 18 and speaking 12 different dialects.

They are not only different physically but they also differ in terms of economic activities, place of settlement and culture.

INTRODUCTION

The difference in ethnicity is paralleled by other differences :

1) way of life 2) language 3) politics 4) economy 5) place of residence 6) social contacts Peninsula Malaysia was originally inhabited by Malays (Malay Archipelago region).

-The early inhabitants of this country classified as Bumiputeras (Son of the soil) were already diversified. -The Chinese and Indians were categorized as non-Bumiputeras.

This tries To chapter depict the composition of the country`s population. We can understand the racial (ethnic) situation in the country in terms of size, economy, politics, society and culture.
Crucial to understand matters relating to the majority-minority situation, economic dominance, political dominance, employment dominance and determinants of governmental policies.

It will also provide a basic knowledge of the government`s efforts at creating unity and national integration.

ETHNIC COMPOSITION OF MALAYAS POPULATION

- The Chinese and Indian immigrants came in large numbers after 1848, the year Long Jaafar found tin in Larut, Perak. - The population increased rapidly because of that. - The Chinese at that time, comprised merchants who settled in Malacca, K. Terengganu and at the estuary of the Johore and Pahang rivers. - The Indians consisted of labourers in sugar cane and coffee plantations in Penang Island and Province Wellesley

Population in Malaya
- Less than half a million in 1870. - Increase to 3.3 million in 1921. - In 1931, Chinese and Indians was 53.2% while Malays was 44.7% .(Chinese was 39%) - However, Malays percentage increases to 49.8%, Chinese 37.2%, Indians 11.3% and others 1.8% by Independence. - The decrease in number of non-Malays might be due the fact that many of them returned to their homeland.

MAIN INHABITANTS OF MALAYSIA - the information in the table below shows the population diversity in Malaysia
Malay
Banjar Boyan Bugis Jawa Kampar Kerinci Mendaling Minangkab au Rawa Johor-Riau

Chinese
Hokkien ChuanChew Chin-Chew Eng-Hua Eng-Choon Hok-Chew Kwangtung Kanton Teochew Hakka Hailam

Indian
Malayabi Punjabi Ceylonese Tamil Telegu

Indigenous
Negrito Senoi Melayu Asli (each of the stocks consists ofa ribal community)

Sabah
Bajau Dudun Murut Bisaya Kadayun Orang Sungai Orang Laut Brunei

Sarawak
Bidayuh Bisaya Iban Kayan Kedayan Kelabit Kenyah Melanau Malays Murut Penan Punan

POPULATION SIZE, AGE STRUCTURE AND ETHNICITY - According to the (1996-2000) Seventh Malaysian Plan book, the Malaysian population totalled 20.69 million in 1995 with an annual average growth rate of 2.7% in 1990-1995.

Population Size and Age Structure 1991-2000(millions)


Population Background Total Population Citizens Bumiputeras Chinese Indian Others Non-Citizens Age Structure 0-14 15-64 65 and above 18.55 17.75 10.73 5.02 1.041 0.51 1.80 6.90 10.97 0.68 1991 20.69 19.38 11.95 5.29 1.50 0.64 1.31 7.33 12.60 1.76 1995 23.26 21.52 13.61 5.60 1.61 0.70 1.74 7.74 14.62 0.90 2000

-It was found that Malays growth rate annually was 2.7% while Chinese and Indians were 1.3% and 1.5% respectively. -The rapid process of urbanisation has caused the urban population size to increase by as much as 4.5% annually from 9.5 million in 1991 to 11.3 million in 1995. -The percentage of population living in the urban area also increased from 51% 1991 to 54.7% in 1995. -According to the classification of ethnic groups in the 1991 Census, 61.7% of the Malaysian population in 1995 consisted of bumiputeras, 27.3% Chinese, 7.7 % Indians and the remaining consisting of other categories. - For the period 1980-1991, the population of 13.74 million people increased to 18.48 million.

STATES HIGHEST GROWTH RATE Federal Territory of Labuan, Sabah and Selangor

REASONS It was due to the combination of the high rate of natural growth and international immigration It was due to the low rate of natural growth and a visible exodus especially from Perak.

LOWEST GROWTH RATE

Perak, Malacca, and Penang

POPULATION DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO STATES

-Based on the 1991 Population and Housing Census, four out of five or 14.96 million of Malaysian population lived in the Peninsula and Selangor had the highest population. -In 1991, Selangor was still the state with the highest population followed by Johore and Sabah. -Perak and Sabah experienced the lowest rate of population. - The table below shows the Malaysian Population According to States in 1980, 1991, and 2000

State Johore Kedah Kelantan Malacca Negeri Sembilan Pahang Perak Perlis Penang Sabah and W.P Labuan Sarawak Selangor Terengganu W.P Kuala Lumpur Malaysia

1980 1,644.9 1,120.6 879.8 466.6 575.9 802.2 1,812.3 148.8 958.2 1,055.1 1,351.1 1,521.6 543.1 981.0 13,879.2

1991 2,188.1 1,371.3 1,227.0 540.2 726.2 1,079.6 1,995.3 190.7 1,133.6 1,867.4 1,723.8 2,431.2 810.7 1,262.1 18,547.2

1995 2,443.8 1,482.1 1,376.1 571.0 785.6 1,189.6 2,072.0 209.1 1,197.8 2,389.0 1,885.2 2,822.4 922.1 1,343.5 2,0689.3

2000 2,731.5 1,605.2 1,561.5 598.9 849.8 1,319.1 2,130.0 230.7 1,259.4 3,136.8 2,064.9 3,287.8 1,064.1 142.3 23,263.6

- In Selangor, the increase was related to the growth in its economy and the floating population of people who work in Kuala Lumpur but live in Selangor. - The overall increase in the Malaysian population was related to a visible increase in non-citizens.

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE WORKFORCE ACCORDING TO ETHNICITY

-It was to ensure that no one ethnic group would dominate a particular field or sector. It was in line with the New Economic Policys objective, which was to restructure society.
- Take a look at the table below to see the changes from 1990 to 1995.

Sector

Bumip utera

Chines e

Indian

Others

Bumip utera

Chines e

Indian

Othe rs

Agriculture

1,179.9

251.6

131.9

174.6

887.2

175.7

92.9

272.9

Mining

19.2

12.1

3.4

2.3

23.8

8.5

4.7

3.7

Manufacturing

619.1

505.0

146.9

62.0

1,038.0

634.0

242.1

137.5

Construction

148.0

217.8

24.5

33.7

252.5

281.6

33.0

92.3

Electricity, Gas, Water

33.0

4.7

8.0

1.3

51.1

6.5

7.8

3.7

Transportation, Communication

148.0

92.9

45.1

16.0

210.6

118.2

48.2

18.2

Trade, Hotel, and Restaurant

420.2

652.2

82.7

62.9

488.6

674.5

85.0

79.7

Finance, Insurance, Property

106.2

120.7

25.5

5.6

171.5

160.9

36.3

9.8

Other Services

859.8

318.0

102.6

48.6

1,021.6

339.5

1,126.6

90.7

Total employment

3,533.4

2,175.0

570.6

407.0

4,144.9

2,399.4

662.6

708.5

-This shows that the Bumiputera community will no longer be described as concentrating only in the agricultural sector like before. -However, certain ethnic groups are still dominant in certain occupations such as the Chinese. -They are still dominant in the field of administration and management. - The table below proved that the governments attempt at structuring employment has more or less been successful.

Occupat ion
Professional and Technical

Bumiput Chinese era


354.8 170.5

Indian
44.9

Others
16.1

Bumiput Chinese era


524.3 213.6

Indian
59.5

Others
17.9

Teacher and nurse

152.0

54.6

14.2

1.0

203.0

57.6

18.5

1.6

Administration and Management

47.1

101.9

6.5

8.3

77.1

116.9

10.9

8.8

Clerical worker

341.8

252.3

56.0

2.5

473.3

275.0

61.6

5.6

Salesperson

229.8

449.3

52.6

37.2

323.8

464.2

58.1

48.3

Service Worker

449.6

208.4

73.4

46.2

571.2

223.8

85.4

101.1

Agricultural Worker

1,305.6

261.8

138.3

185.0

1,049.3

214.0

124.6

274.3

Production Worker

804.6

730.8

198.9

111.7

1,149.9

892.1

262.5

252.3

- Changes in the distribution of ethnic groups according to occupation were also related to the percentage change in the employment of Bumiputeras in certain professional occupations. (Refer to the table below). - However, the participation of Bumiputeras in the field of accountancy, architecture and medicine still remains low.

The table shows that in general, the Chinese ethnic group still dominates professional occupations in the country, where they outnumber the Malays by almost two is to one.

INCOME DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO ETHNIC GROUP

-The Governments development policies on the restructuring of society and the eradication of poverty have produced results. -The household income of every ethnic group has increased. However, the average Bumiputera household income still remains lower than that of the Chinese and Indian. - Take an example from the Seventh Malaysian Plan (1996-2000) based o the table below:

- Based on the average household income in 1995, the Chinese and Indian household income averaged RM2, 895.00 and RM2, 153.00, respectively and was higher than the average bumiputera household income of RM1,600.00.

- The household income between the Bumiputera and Chinese ethnic groups grows as illustrated by the rise in the ratio of income inequality between Bumiputera and Chinese ethnic groups from 1: 1.74 in 1990 and 1: 1.81 in 1995

THE MALAYS

Regard themselves as the early original population of Peninsula Malaysia and also the assumption of the non-Malays. Believe that they have special position receive special treatment as provided for in Article 153 of the constitution and in the 1948 Federation of Malaya Treaty as well as a right and not privilege.

The principle underlying the special position is historical and economical justification.

History of the Malays in Malaya


Most of them in Peninsula today were the descendants of people who originated from the Indonesian Archipelago. Their arrival in Peninsula before colonialism was normal migration from one Malay area to another. Before the colonialists arrived, the people in the Malay Archipelago area moved freely because the areas belonged to them. It was only after the 1824 Anglo- Dutch Treaty that the area was divided into what is today Indonesia and Malaysia . The migration of people from the Indonesian Archipelago into Malaya started at the latest from the 19th century.

The Indonesians who migrated to Malaya were: Minangkabau- people from Sumatera came to Malaya in the 14th century.

Javanese- lived as merchants in Malacca since the time of the Malay Sultanate of Malacca. Banjar Bugis Boyan

The great migration of them was during the British colonial period. European contract and free labour. Chinese owned coffee and rubber plantations.

Political stability and growing economy in Malaya-tin ore, plantation agriculture Political instability in Indonesia -the pressure from the colonialists.

Indonesian traits Poverty- increasing of population and tax charges.

FACTORS THAT ENCOURAGED THE MIGRATION OF INDONESIANS TO MALAYA

Background of Malayan Population of Indonesian Origin


Javanese The great migration from the Dutch transmigration policy the moving of people from the Island of Jawa .

The majority consisted of coffee, rubber plantation workers and laborers in newly open land.
In 1930,there were 170,000 people in Singapore . In Malaya , most of them were concentrated in Johor, Selangor, and Perak.

Banjar Originated from the district of Banjarmasin, Kalimantan Involved in paddy planting. In 1931,their population totaled 45,382 people Lived along the coast and in river valleys such as Kerian, Parit Buntar, Sabak Bernam and Batu Pahat.

Bugis Originated from the Sulawesi Islands . They were the business groups and in Malaya ,many of them lived in Perak, Selangor, Pahang and Johor. Johor Benut, Kukup and Rengit

SelangorLangat Valley
Perakthey were mainly merchants.

Boyanese Originated from Boyan Island . They migrated to Singapore , Ipoh , Kuala Lumpur , Johor Bahru and Penang Island . Concentrated in cities because they expert in horse-rearing.

Minangkabau Originated from Sumatra They were found in N.Sembilan and Malacca, known as followers of Adat Perpatih. Involved in business and agriculture.

The other communities of Indonesian origin are Kampar, Mendaling, and Rawa. People of Malay descent also came fro other areas like Patani. In 1957,the number of Malays was 2,427,834,49.8% of overall population of Malaya . Federated Malay States Selangor, Pahang, N.Sembilan and Perak. Non-Federated Malay StatesKedah, Perlis, Kelantan,Terengganu and Johor.

The concept of the Federation of Malaya and certain institutions, such as Train Service of Malaya, portray the concept of the land of the Malays. In 1964, that several insulting views have emerged, proposed by the People`s Action Party(PAP) of Singapore to create the concept of Malaysian Malaysia. Incessant attacks on Malay beliefs of nationalism were answered by the Malays through UMNO with shouts of Long Live The Malays.

Thus the continued dispute between Kuala LumpurSingapore that culminated in Singapore moving out of Malaysia .

British policies caused economic backwardness among them. Connected to the existence of the immigrant culture among the immigrant community. They are not exposed to similar opportunities as other communities in urban areas. The poverty of the Malays is due to the area they live. Low income production not using the latest technology Involved in the agricultural and traditional industries low productivity Malays were the poorest compared to Chinese and Indian.

ECONOMY

POLITICS
They were strong in political sense but weak economically. Malay and pro-Malay parties always have the most elected presentation in parliament. Since 1946,they were undeniably the dominant prime movers in the politics of the Malay Peninsula . Malay organization the United Malay National Organization(UMNO). The Malayan Islamic Party(PAS) headed by Arabic-educated leaders and opposition party to UMNO.

SOSIOCULTURAL
They live in villages strong social ties and strict social control. Malays who live in urban areas seem to experience a loose pressure on social control. Their family unit is not small and the family is considered an important institution for social security. All Malays are Muslims, but not all Muslims are Malays. They are described as humble people, even-tempered and able to control themselves hot-tempered is not respected and regarded as rude. Thus, it is difficult to understand their feeling, attitude, views and convictionsthey are always misunderstood. This misunderstanding sometimes goes beyond relations between people and into the economic, social and political areas.

THE CHINESE

- The presence of the Chinese in Malaya can be tracked back to the period of the Malay Kingdom of Malacca. At that time, there were ties between Malacca and China. - For example, in Malacca where they are known as the Baba community. - In the 18 century, there were Chinese merchant settlements in Pahang, Kelantan and Terengganu, whilst in the early nineteenth century, many Chinese had arrived in the Straits Settlements (Singapore, Malacca and Penang Island). -Most of them worked as businessmen and craftsmen.

-The arrival of the Chinese due to encouragement from Temenggung (Military Chief) Ibrahim gambier and black pepper
-In the mid-nineteenth, they started to come in big numbers because of tin mines.

- In the 1930s, immigration requirements were tightened ; Japanese took over China. - During World War Two, Chinese played an important role in forming MPAJA in 1948 and MRLA. - During the emergency, they moved to new villages to prevent them from being used and forced to give help to the communist guerillas. - had much better facilities thus creating eventually a gap between them. - originated from Fukien, Kwangtung and Kwangsi. - entered through the contract system arranged by agents.

Difficulties of living in China - Experienced hardship Growth in the tin and rubber industry - Created labour PUSH-PULL FACTORS THAT LED CHINESE TO MIGRATE TO MALAYA Political instability in the districts of South China - The revolt

Political stability of Malaya - stable


Chinese population characteristics - Hardworking and like travelling

Migration facilities - transportation

BEFORE WWT not stable with their number fluctuating according to the economic conditions.

AFTER WWT more stable since most of them had obtained citizenship through jus soli.

BACKGROUND OF THE MALAYA CHINESE POPULATION


CLUSTER
POPULATION NUM. IN 1921

OCCUPATION CHARACTERISTICS

Hokkien Cantonese Hakka

380,656 332,307 218,139

businessmen and shopkeepers miners and craftsmen (carpenter, cobbler and iron smith) miners

Teochew

130,231

shopkeepers and farmers who started sugar cane plantations in Wellesley Province and Penang Island, gambier plantation and black pepper in Johor restaurant owners and suppliers of household needs

Hailam

68,393

ECONOMY
Business-minded Wealthy, controlling transportation companies, construction and estate Hokkiens controlled the rubber estates Hainanese- coffee shop business Slowly disappearing- modern education

POLITICS
During Japanese period-not allowed After WWT, they were not at all interestedtheir main interest was an economy that was prosperous. But, they felt the need to be active-British would leave the country. Those who were educated in English tries forming unions MCA (protect their interests and also for self-government)

Some who wanted independence through violence.


When they (poor) became more politically conscious- began to voice their feelings to other parties such as Labour Party, the People`s Progressive Party and the People`s Action Party. MCA is the main Chinese party.

SOSIOCULTURAL
Comprise various dialectal communities Based on Taoism and Confucianism The acceptance of Mandarin- only limited to government services and schools In Malaysia- Chinese are Buddhists. The New Year, the moon cake festival, the harvesting season, the dragon boat festival

THE INDIANS

During the period of the Malay Kingdom of Malacca, Tamil-Islam influence played an important role in the ruling system

Indian settlement in Malacca known as Kampung Kling. Widely recognized as propagators of Islam During the British occupation of Penang in 1786, Indian labourers migrated to the Islandwork in sugar cane as domestic help Indian prisoners- help construct buildings and roads

Originated from South India (Tamil Nadu)

Brought by agents through contract system After 1910, changed to kangany system Indians from Punjab (Sikhs) started migrating to Malaya towards the twentieth century.

Difficulties living in India - Job opportunities were scarce

FACTORS THAT ENCOURAGED INDIANS INTO MALAYA

Rapid economic development in Malaya - rubber, palm oil

Encouragement from the British government - Work in plantations, civil service and construction

COMPOSITION Tamil

BACKGROUND originated from Tamil Nadu largest ethnic in Malaya (80.0 percent) worked in rubber, oil palm plantations and government offices originated from the Malabar coast aka Malabari 70.0 percent working class- in the plantations and the middle class, in clerical and professional employment, also famous for their restaurants originated from Andhra Pradesh 4.0 percent worked as labourers originated from Punjab worked as police and railway station officers, security guards. Also involved in rearing of cows

Malayali

Telegu

Sikh

ECONOMY
The Chettiar group, came to Malaysia as loan providers and were not involved in other businesses Majority of the Indians in Malaysia- low income, low-skilled or unskilled occupations. Remained in the plantation economy as labourers. Involved in other fields, like trading- owners of grocery, book and textile stores

POLITICS
Main political party is MIC Patterns of Indian political in Malaya were quite similar to the political activity patterns in India. The opposition by the citizens of India against the British colonialists greatly influenced the political activities of the Indians in Malaya before WWO

SOSIOCULTURAL
South Indian descent speak Tamil The Natukottai Chetty- society for merchants The Maruthuvar Sangam- society for hairdressers The religions of the Indians in Malaysia range from Hinduism to sikhism, Christianity and Islam. Most popular deities are Siva, Subramaya and Ganesh Religious festivals- Thaipusam, Sithraparuvam and Punggal or New Year festival.

INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF SABAH AND SARAWAK

SABAH
COMMUNITY Kadazan BACKGROUND largest community aka the Dusun people Originally from Kalimantan, live in hinterland concentrated in areas of the Ranau and Tambunan valley originally from Mindanao and Sulu Island aka sea people and Samal people concentrated in Semporna, Kota Belud and Timbang Island interior such as Tenom, Rundu and Pensiangan small number of them still live in long houses and are nomads originally from Sulu Archipelago. Now concentrated in Sungai Sugut muslims

Bajau

Murut Sulu

Brunei

originally from Brunei and now settled in Sabah, in Beaufort, Kimanis and Papar muslims

SARAWAK
COMMUNITY Malay originally from Sumatra live along the coastal area muslims live along the Igan, Oya and Mukah rivers muslims assimilated with Malays and practise Malay culture originally from Kalimantan (River Kapuas) aka Sea Dayaks largest community and live in inland areas such as along Sungai Sekrang, Sungai Batang Lupar and Sungai Rejang live as nomads in the woods settled mainly in the area of the rivers Baram and Rejam most famous villages is Bario still live in long houses BACKGROUND

Melanau

Iban

Penan Kelabit

ABORIGINES

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ABORIGINES


SENOI concentrated more in Perak, Kelantan, Selangor, Pahang and Terengganu taller than the Negritos, dark coloured skin still practise shifting cultivation NEGRITO found largely in Kedah, Perak, Kelantan and Pahang small body frame, dark colored skin, large nose and curly hair cultivation and collecting forest products ORANG ASLI found in Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Malacca and Johor larger and taller as compared to the Negritos, dark coloured skin and straight and blach hair fishermen, farming

CONCLUSION