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Airport Planning and

Topics to discuss:
* Evolution of Aviation in USA
* Evolution of Aviation in India
* Classification of airports in USA
* Classification of airports in India
* Organizations that governs and influence
airport and Regulatory policies
•DOT •DGCA •Customs
Evolution of Aviation in USA

The formative period: 1903 - 1938

Man began thinking of flying centuries ago

In 16th century Leonardo da Vinci designed models of flying machines

* Wright Brothers (Orville Wright & Wilbur Wright) succeeded
in their experiments to complete the first ever flight on
December 17, 1903 at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

* In India, the first actual flight was successfully attained on

December 10, 1910 at Allahabad
Till 1912, there were only 12 privately owned
landing facilities in US

1914-1918: World War I broke out with

huge demands of aircrafts and pilots.
67 airports came into existence out of
which 25 remained as military airfield
after the war.
Early airmail service: 1919 - 1925
1914-1918: World War I broke out with
huge demand of aircrafts and pilots.
67 airports came into existence out of
which 25 remained as military airfield
after the war

The first regular airmail route was

established on May 15, 1918 between
New York City and Washington D.C
Early airmail service: 1919 - 1925

By 1920, there were 145 airports

owned by municipality

Kelly Act or Air Mail Act of 1925 passed

by which PMG was authorized to
contract with private air carriers for the
transportation of mail by air
The Air Commerce Act: 1926 - 1938

On May 20, 1926, President Calvin

Coolidge signed the Air Commerce Act
of 1926 to make it law with the object
to promote the development and
stability of commercial aviation
In July 1927, a director of aeronautics
was appointed in the Department of
Commerce to look after the
administration of air commerce
The Air Commerce Act: 1926 - 1938

Bureau of Air Commerce established in

1934 with two divisions: division of air
navigation and division of air
In 1937, Bureau of Air commerce was
restructured with six divisions
1. airway engineering 2. airway operation
3. Safety and Planning 4. Admin and Statistics
5. Certification and Inspection 6. Regulation
The Civil Aeronautics Act 1938

In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act

transferred the civil aviation responsibility
from commerce department to an
autonomous agency Civil Aeronautics
Authority, CAA
In 1940, President Franklin Roosevelt split the Authority
into two agencies, the Civil Aeronautics Administration
(CAA) and the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB). CAA was
responsible for ATC, airman and aircraft certification,
safety enforcement, and airway development. CAB was
entrusted with safety rulemaking, accident investigation,
and economic regulation of the airlines.
The Civil Aeronautics Act 1938

During World War II (1939-1945), CAA took

over the responsibility of ATC at airports
In 1946, CAA was assigned an additional
task to administer the Federal Aid Program
to develop the airports

In 1956, a Trans World Airlines Super Constellation and

a United Airlines Douglas DC-7 collided in midair killing
128 people

On May 20, 1958, a military jet trainer and a civilian

transport plane collided killing 12 people
The Birth of FAA

Following the introduction of jet airliner and

a series of mid air collision, the Federal
Aviation Act 1958 came into existence. This
legislation transferred the functions of CAA
to the newly created agency “Federal
Aviation Agency, FAA”

FAA took over safety rule making from CAB with ATC,
Navigation and sole responsibility of developing and
maintaining civil- military system of aviation
From Agency to Administration
In 1966, US Congress created a cabinet
department to combine Federal
Transportation Responsibility. And thereby
Department of Transportation became fully
operational from April 1, 1967
Mr. Alan S. Boyd was appointed the first Secretary
of Transportation

On the same day 01/04/1967, Federal Aviation

Agency took the new name- Federal Aviation
Administration, FAA
Evolution of Aviation in India

1910 - 1940

Hectic activities were seen towards the end

of 1910 to bring planes to India and then to
show them off -the latest scientific wonder

In 1910, His Highness, the Maharaja of Patiala

sent his British Engineer CW Bowels to Europe to
bring a few flights to India. He returned to India in
December, with two planes with him, a Farman,
made in England and a Gnome-Bleriot monoplane
fitted with two seats

In December 1910, a party from Belgium

and two from England with many aircrafts
arrived in India. The first amongst them was
famous Humber motor companies. The
team was led by Capt WG Windham,
comprising two pilots, one French an one
English and two mechanics

After reaching Bombay (Mumbai) they proceeded

to Allahabad to demonstrate the aircraft at the
Industrial Exhibition due to be held there shortly.
The news paper Report of First Flight in India

“The first actual flight was successfully

attained by Mr. David in a Beriot on the 10th
of December 1910. David had the machine
ready and early in the morning circled the
Polo ground at a height of 25 to 30 feet………
thus Allahabad has had the distinction of
giving the lead not only in India but also to
the whole of Asian continent in connection
with the latest of scientific wonders.”
The second aircraft flew the next day,
December 11, 1910, under the control of
French Pilot Piguet and carried the first
passenger in India. He was one of the sons
of the Maharaja of Benares
In a show at Tollygunj, near Calcutta on
December 21, 1910, in a show Baron flew
with a lady passenger Mrs. N.C. Sen who
thus became the first woman in India to get

December 29, Jules Tyck set two national

records in his Bleriot at Tollygunj .

He became the first to fly over the city, including

directly over the
Government House.

The second record was set when he climbed to

all of 700 feet above ground level.

The history of civil aviation in India started

with its first commercial flight on February
18, 1911. It was a journey from Allahabad
to Naini made by a French pilot
Monseigneur Piguet covering a distance of
about 10 km over the river Yamuna.

There were 6000 letters and postcards addressed

to many celebrities carried by Piguet. The envelops
were stamped as “First Airmail Post”

The first domestic air route Karachi-Delhi

began in December 1912 by the Indian
State Air Services in collaboration with the
Imperial Airways, UK. It was actual
extension of London-Karachi flight
The Indian aviation gathered momentum after
three years (1915) with the opening of a regular
airmail service between Karachi and Madras by
the first Indian airline- Tata Sons Limited

The Royal Air Force inaugurated the 1st

station in India at Ambala in 1932

On October 8, 1932, Indian Air Force (IAF) was

launched by an act of the Governor General. The
first squadron came into existence
on April 1, 1933.

Senior most Pilot Officer Subroto Mukherjee later

became IAF’s first Indian Commander-in-Chief.

October 15, 1932, JRD Tata started Tata

Aviation and piloted the first carriage of mail
from Karachi to Bombay. Tata Aviation later
became Air India

December 1940, Seth Hirachand Walchand

launched Hindustan
Aircraft Limited (HAL)
with the help of an American and
the State of Mysore
Post Independence Time 1947-1955

At the time of Independence, there were 9 air

transport companies operating in India

Tata Airlines, Indian National Airways, Air Service

of India, Deccan Airways, Ambica Airways, Bharat
Airways, Mistry Airways and Oriental Airways

Air Corporation Act of 1953 was passed nationalising

all airlines.
Air India International took over the international traffic
and Indian Airlines Corporation the domestic.
Classifications of Airports in USA

NASP: The National Airport System Plan, 1970

FAA, the Federal Aviation Administration
recognized about 5400 public-use airports
in US
FAA did it to bring all of them to be
made eligible for federal funding and
All such airports are categorized in terms of
annual enplanement and type of service
Category of airports as classified by NASP

Commercial Service General Aviation

Airports Airports
•Annual enplanement •Annual enplanement
more than 2500 less than 2500

Air carriers Commuters

In 1983, there were 780 CS airports with 635

AC and 145 Commuters. There were 2423 GA
Classifications of Airports in USA
NPIAS: The National Plan of Integrated Airport
System Plan, 1982
As per the Airport and Airway Act, 1982
NASP took a new form of NPIAS and
classified the airports in 4 categories

Primary Commercial Service Airports

Commercial Service Airports
General Aviation airports
Reliever airports
Classifications of Airports in USA

Primary Commercial Service Airports

It is public-use airports enplanning at least
10000 or more passengers annually
In 2002, there were 422 fell in this category
Large Hub: 1% or more of total pax (Total 31)
Medium Hub: .25% to <1% of total pax (Total 37)
Small Hub: .05% to <.25% of total pax (Total 74)

Non Hub: Less than .05% of total pax (Total 280)

Classifications of Airports in USA

Commercial Service Airports

Commercial Service Airports are those

airports that accommodate scheduled air
carrier service. (Total 546)
General Aviation Airports
Those airports with fewer than 2500 annual
enplaned passengers and those used exclusively
by private aircraft not providing commercial air
carrier passenger service are categorized as GA
airports. (2558)
Classifications of Airports in USA

Reliever Airports

It is a special category of GA airports located

within a relatively short distance (less than 50
miles) of Primary Commercial Service airport,
specially designated by NPIAS to provide relief to
congested major airports
RA should have at least 50 aircraft based at the
Must handle at least 25000 itinerant operations
annually or 35000 local operations annually
Total 260 airports are classified as RA
Classifications of Airports in India

Indian airports are divided into 3 broad categories

* Domestic
* International and
*Civil enclave

There are two more categories in India

* Customs Airport
* Model Airport
International Airports in India

The following airports link the major Indian cities of India to the
international cities:
01. Amritsar International Airport
02. Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi
03. Lokpriya Gopinath Bordolio International Airport, Guwahati
04. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport, Ahmedabad
05. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport, Kolkata
06. Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai
07. Rajiv Gandhi International airport, Hyderabad
08. Goa Airport, Dabolim, Goa
09. Bangalore International Airport
10. Cochin International Airport
11. Chennai International Airport
12. Trivandrum International Airport
Customs Airports in India

Custom Airports in India: Custom Airports provide immigration and customs

facilities for the international tourists. They also operate cargo charter flights.
The custom airports in India are located at:
Model Airports in India

Indian Model Airports are the domestic airports with following

Minimum 7500 feet length of runway
Sufficient terminal capacity for handling aircraft of Airbus 320 type

If required, can also handle limited international traffic

The model airports in India are located in:

Number of Airports in India (2001)

Total 449

Open to Public 129 Closed to Public 323

Civil Enclave International

Domestic 89
28 12
Organizations that governs and influence
airport and Regulatory policies


•DOT •DGCA •Customs

The International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies
the principles and techniques of international air
navigation and fosters the planning and
development of international air transport to
ensure safe and orderly growth.

The constitution of ICAO is the Convention on International Civil

Aviation, drawn up by a conference in Chicago in November and
December 1944, and to which each ICAO Contracting State is a
party. According to the terms of the Convention, the Organization
is made up of an Assembly, a Council of limited membership with
various subordinate bodies and a Secretariat. The chief officers
are the President of the Council and the Secretary General.
Dr. Taïeb Chérif
International Air Transport Association
230 air carriers
93% of scheduled international air traffic
Administrative set-up in India


Autonomous Air Carriers Airports

Airports Authority
4. DGCA 4. Air India of India
5. BCAS 5. Indian Airlines
6. IGRUA 6. Pawanhans
7. Commission of 5 Regions
Railway Safety
Commission of Railway Safety
The Commission of Railway Safety, working under the admini-
strative control of the Ministry of Civil Aviation of the
Government of India, deals with matters pertaining to safety of
rail travel and train operation and is charged with certain
statutory functions as laid down in the Railways Act (1989),
which are of an inspectorial, investigatory & advisory nature.
The Commission functions according to certain rules viz.
Statutory investigation into accidents rules framed under the
Railways Act and executive instructions issued from time to time.
The most important duties of the Commission is to ensure that
any new Railway line to be opened for passenger traffic should
conform to the standards and specifications prescribed by the
Ministry of Railways and the new line is safe in all respects for
carrying of passenger traffic. Commission also conducts statutory
inquiry into serious train accidents occurring on the Indian
Railways and makes recommendations for improving safety on
the Railways in India.
Thank You