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FIVE SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS RESEARCH APPROACHES

Introduction
Studies of school effects The study of the characteristics - the scientific features of effective schools developed from a study of input-output model to use a multi of levels Effective school studies Study the process of effective school case study was developed from the current study combines the qualitative and quantitative methods to the classroom and school

School Effectiveness Research Approach


According Averch, et al. (1994) there are five forms of the approaches: Approach Input - Output Process Approach Organizational Approach Assessment Approach Experiential Approach

Input-output Approach
see school as a black box containing the students Resources are included for students in a black box and output flows out "Output" is defined through the use of one cognitive standard performance test

Outputs Inputs school resources students (Educational outcomes)

Figure 1 input-output

Change of educational outcomes due to variation in the input source Statistics: ex post facto, data cross sectional- multiple regression Degree of confidence: the internal validity and external validity depends on the performance of the standardize test

Students Outcomes cognitive performance score from a standardized test score such as math or reading. resource-quality school facilities, the average experience of teachers, the approval of teachers, average class size, student teacher ratio Background - family SES, parental education level, location of residence Peer influence - the attitude, motivation and educational aspirations.

Research outcomes
There is weak evidence that the school has a strong influence on student outcomes School resources do not provide strong evidence of student achievement Background was found to have a strong influence on the performance The peers influence - only weak evidence that influence student outcomes.

Process Approach
Focus on inside" the black box Resources are available or are considered fixed: the key is the process - the process of how the source of "processed/ manipulate" to the students and encourage students to process This process is related to teachers, students, teaching, or their interaction.

Resource Educational outcomes

Processes

student

Figure 2 The process approach

Teacher characteristics - skills, behaviors, attitudes, teacher to student expectation Methods of teaching - done in the classroom or in the laboratory, transfer of learning, strengthening/ enrichment and feedback, "attention factors in learning Individual characteristics of students - the ability and IQ, special abilities, personality differences

Outcomes is a limited measure of cognitive performance Experimental research is often designed small-scale and sometimes - sometimes in the laboratory Internal validity if the experimental design appropriate.

Research Outcomes
Classroom studies different teaching approaches, different teachers and class size shows that the effect on students outcomes is not continues. teaching methods- there is no difference in students achievement because of the method introduced

Laboratory Studies Difference in teaching approaches, different teachers and class size shows that the effect on students 'outcomes is not continues. the concept of positive reinforcement and rewards matters

Organizational Approach
School is seen as an institutions that satisfy the diverse goals and demands of internal bureaucracy, community, parent and student Input is such as rules & regulations, procedures, incentives in the system This approach gives more attention to peoples in the system such as teachers, administrators, officials

Rules & Regulations

Accountability, Innovation, & Adaptability

Results satisfy the students

Other objectives

Figure 3 - The Organizational Approach

Accountability measures: - how the school 'respond' to changes in community. How do school "responsive" to produce a satisfactory academic outcomes Most of research is case study

Research Outcomes
there is a positive relationship between the size of the centralized system. More bureaucracy and higher the centralization would results less innovation and adaptation at organizational levels Organizational innovation is found not shown any improvement on achievement or outcomes than traditional forms available

Evaluation Approach
Try to analyze the effectiveness of a wide range of intervention actions that are directly related to issues of social policy Resources are given to each students improved Research question- is interventions affects the outcomes?

Studens Educational Outcomes

Intervention

Figure 4 The evaluation approach

Experiential Approach
Focus on what had happened or happens to students at the end of schooling The main focus of the impact of school experience on students' self-concept and relationships with other social institutions Research question: what schools has done for the students?

Student

Observer/researcher

Figure 5 : Experiential Approach

Research done by direct observation through observation, and also followed by a description of researcher experience Variables involved: teacher student relationship and its impact on students

school system and its effect on students relationship between/within the school community and its impact on students problems of internal validity and objectives of the research

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