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PERICARDIAL EFFUSION

Mr.ALFRIN ANTONY
Asst. LECTURER
DEPARTMNT OF PATHOLOGY
PERI CAR DI AL F LUI D
ACCU MU LATI ON
Accumul ati on of f lui d i n
the peri toneal sac may be
watery or p rude bl ood .
Two types:-

1. Pericardial effusion
2. Haemo pericardium
PH YSI OL OGY
• Normally, pericardial cavity contains 30-
50 ml of clear fluid.
• Considerable quantities of fluid (up to
1000ml)can be accommodated in the
pericardial cavity without seriously
affecting the cardiac function if the
accumulation is slow.
• But sudden accumulation of a smaller
volume (upto250ml) may produce
deficient diastolic filling of the cardiac
chambers (cardiac tamponade)
DEFINITION

Accumulation of fluid in the


pericardial cavity due to
non-inflammatory causes is
called hydro pericardium or
pericardial effusion
TYPES

1. Serous effusions
2. Serosanguineous effusion
3. Chylous effusion
4. Cholesterol effusion
SER OUS EF FUSI ONS
• This is the most common type
• It occurs in conditions causing
generalized edema.
e.g: CHF, renal, nutritional and
hepatic causes.
• The serous effusion is clear,
watery, straw-colored with specific
cavity less than 1.015
SER OSAN GU INEOU S
EF FUSI ON
Serosanguineous Effusion is
fond following blunt trauma
to chest and
cardiopulmonary
resuscitation.
CHY LOU S EF FUS ION

Milky or chylous fluid


accumulation occurs in
conditions which causing
lymphatic obstruction.
CHO LES TROL
EF FUSI ON
Cholesterol Effusion is a
rare type of fluid
accumulation
characterized by the
presence of cholesterol
crystals such as in
myxoedema
2.HEM OPE RI CARDI U
M
• Accumulation of pure blood in the
pericardial sac is termed
haemopericardium.
• The condition must be distinguished
from hemorrhagic pericarditis in which
there is escape of small quantities of
blood into the pericardial cavity.
• A Massive and sudden bleeding into sac
causes compression of the heart leading
to cardiac tamponade
HAEMOPERICARDIUM
causes
• Rupture of the heart though a
myocardial infract
• Rupture of dissecting aneurysm
• Bleeding diathesis such as in scurvy
• Acute leukemias
• Thrombocytopenia
• Trauma following cardiopulmonary
resuscitation or by laceration of a
coronary artery