Sunteți pe pagina 1din 19


METHODOLOGY:Role of courtyard in institutional building


Case study

What is courtyard ?


Dimension al value



R.V.C.E. Bangalore

Functional aspects

Climatica l aspects

School Of Architecture

Courtyard can be define permanently open to sky space within or adjacent to the building. When we study civilization in India, we observe that from prehistoric times up to the start of colonial age in India, we had courtyard as a basic design element in all the residential and other building units for variety. Social Religious Cultural Functional Climatical Since the prehistoric times courtyard planning was influencing the architecture of different ages like Indus valley civilization ,Islamic architecture ,Buddhist architecture, Hindu architecture.

Through the age, with development of the lifestyle of the people, construction techniques and the influence by the invasions of different tribes and culture; changes and development the traditional planning principles which in turn changed the use of courtyard planning. The hot dry, tropical climate gave rise the courtyard concept . The typical courtyard was most suitable solution to control very hot summers .As courtyard also provides light and ventilation in building.

Courtyard generates current of cool air at lower level. Due to this climatic reasons courtyard becomes the basic design element of over traditional architecture.

What is courtyard?
Courtyard is an area wholly or partially surrounded by walls or buildings; "the buildings are built around an inner court" .

A court or courtyard is an enclosed area, often a space enclosed by a building that is open to the sky. These areas in inns and public buildings were often the primary meeting places for some purposes.

Type Of Courtyard 1. Exterior courtyard:

Exterior courtyard is at the periphery of building used as a meeting and gathering place.

2. Interior courtyard:
Interior courtyard is at the center of building. Used as a light,ventilation and gathering place.

Courtyard can be differentiated according to its function or zoning such as private, semi-private or public and forms of enclosure such as enclosed form two three or four sides.

Private courtyard :When the internal courtyard is used of the inhabitants of the building its private.

Semi-private courtyard:When the visitors and inhabitants of the building its private.

Public courtyard:Public courtyard used by the general public.

Dimensional value of courtyard:The shape of courtyard may vary from building to building according to the light and ventilation and users need .

But strictly speaking the height and width ratio of courtyard must follow the dimensions of width and height ratio to fulfill and satisfy the qualities of the courtyards without becoming an open to sky shaft for the only purpose of light and ventilation.

Usually a courtyard width is equal to or about half the height of the building. Courtyards at all level shall have an area not less than the square of 1/5th of the height of the highest wall abutting to it.

Courtyard in institutional building

Courtyard planning in architecture being a very broad concept. Regarding my seminar topic Role Of Courtyard In Institutional Building, I have limited myself within institutional building.

Evolution of courtyard in institution An example can be seen if we look back in our historical background in our ancient Gurukul system several student lived with their 'Guru' at his Ashram like the members of one 'family' and learn ancient scriptures no separate academic building existed.

Classes were held in courtyard under the cool shadow of a large tree with Mother Nature all around.

Role of Courtyard in institutional building

Almost every institute or campus has some kind of central plaza or gathering place.

Courtyard has more traditional plan type as it hold illustrious place in institutional building; it also provides a central space.

Institutional buildings will always have same arrangements of buildings with spaces created between them.

The uses of these spaces for circulation, study, relaxation and aesthetic pleasure deserve far greater attention than they have yet received. Open to sky open space our courtyard in institutional building based on two aspects:1. Functional aspect 2. Climatic aspect

1. Functional aspect of courtyard in institutional building: It provides a shaded central space, controlled play area and variety of adjacent verandas, corridors and rooms.

This helps in better interaction among them and fulfills the short coming of covered space.

Irregularly shaped courtyard and contrasting geometry can help to distinguish different areas.

Defined by the building that surround it the courtyard is characterized by the way it is entered through a formal lobby or

2. Climatical aspect of courtyard in institutional building:

Climatically it acts like a shaft generating a current of cold air at lower level.

It keeps the glare and radiation and provides sufficient light and ventilation to the enclosed spaces surrounding it. Sometimes, a water body or a well located tree on the garden in the courtyards is an added relief. Water body in a courtyard also helps in evaporating cooling.

In traditional planning, courtyard was a passive aid of cooling of building. It provides micro climate within the macro climate of building. In the hot dry tropical climates the use of courtyard by student and faculty can be in through out the year.
sh ad e

protection from hot dusty wind Cool air from courtyard

Radiation to cool surface


A pool of cool night air can be retained, as it is heavier than the surrounding warm air, as the courtyard is surrounded by walls almost equal to the width of courtyards or double in height so

Architectural Interventions Addition of wall

The divides the areas. Spaces cannot promote interaction.

Scale and proportion

Users decides the scale of the courtyard. Interior courtyards are smaller than exterior courtyards.

Addition of steps
Steps in courtyards creates the spatial differences and two zones are segregated. Informal sitting area.

Addition of tree
Create its own domain. Provides shade.

Addition of water body

Help in evaporative cooling

Spatial difference. Greenness and cool feeling.

Addition of seat
Seats provide comfort level. Reflects behavior

Climate control should be one of the basic functions of any architecture with the advancement in science and technology; we are now better position to design climate responsive architecture. But the mechanical sophisticated climate control devices are very expensive both from capital investment and operational point of view. There is no denying the fact that courtyard worked well in our climatic condition. I, therefore, feel it is very much essential that as an architect, as a responsible professional to be, one must identify the elements which are primarily responsible for making the building comfortable and at the same time encourage and develop socio-cultural aspect of traditional Indian cities. So, the Re-examination and critical study of the concept in planning courtyard in present day's context to be studied and applied with understanding, in new situation. What has changed and what has not? What can be learnt from past pattern and adopt it in new situation, with or without some modification.