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VIRGINIA CONCRETE CONFERENCE

March 3-4, 2011


Presented by:

Teddy Theryo, P.E.


Parsons Brinckerhoff
SEGMENTAL BRIDGE GROUP

1.
2. 3.

4.
5.

Introduction Understanding of Creep & Shrinkage Code Development of Creep & Shrinkage Impact of Creep & Shrinkage on Post-Tensioned Bridges Conclusions

Definitions
Creep is time dependent deformations of concrete

under permanent loads (self weight), PT forces and permanent displacement


Shrinkage is shortening of concrete due to drying and

is independent of applied loads

Factors Affecting Creep

Concrete mix proportion Cement properties Curing conditions Size and shape of members Environment Age at loading Stress level

Factors Affecting Shrinkage

Concrete mix proportion

Cement properties
Aggregate properties Curing conditions

Size and shape of members


Environment

In structural concrete creep and shrinkage strains are

coexist and occur together. The rate of both creep and shrinkage decrease with time. Theoretically the creep and shrinkage are considered diminished at 10,000 days (27 years) after construction. For practical purposes the ending time of 4,000 days (11 years) is also commonly used in creep and shrinkage calculations . Mathematically the non linear shape of creep and shrinkage has been assumed as hyperbolic, exponential or logarithmic.

Strain

Creep strain

Instantaneous strain

Time
TYPICAL CREEP TIMECURVE

Strain

Time
TYPICAL SHRINKAGE TIMECURVE

Strain

Drying creep Basic creep Shrinkage

Total creep

Nominal elastic strain

t0

Time (t t0)

1500
-6

S tr a i n - 1 0

1000
Instantaneous recovery

500
Strain on application of load

Creep recovery Residual deformation

50

100

150

200

Time since application of load - days

1.
2. 3.

4.
5.

Introduction Understanding of Creep & Shrinkage Code Development of Creep & Shrinkage Impact of Creep & Shrinkage on Post-Tensioned Bridges Conclusions

Relationship between creep and elastic deformations


cr

el

=
cr

E28

where:

= creep strain

el

= elastic strain
= stress

E28 = elastic modules of concrete at age 28 days = creep factor

TOTAL ELASTIC AND CREEP STRAIN

4.0 3.72 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 3.03

2.57
2.22 2.00 1.70 1.44 1 .2 0 1 .0 7 1 .0 0 0 .9 6 0. 9 4

1.5
1.0 0.5 0 3 7 Days

0 .9 1

0.90

14 21 28 42 56

3 4 56 Months

9 1 1.5 2 Years

0.88 3

DURATION OF LOADING

Mcr(t) = (1 e - (t)) (MII MI) MFinal(t) = MII + (MI MII) e- (t)


where: (t) = creep factor at time t e = Base of Napierian logarithms = 2.7182 MI = Movement due to permanent loads before change of statical system MII = Movement due to the same loads applied on changed statical system (build on false-work)

q
Fixed Fixed

MI
L L

qL MI = 8

Free Cantilever Statical System


MII qL 24
2

qL MII = 12

Changed Statical System (Midspan Continuous)


MFinal (t) MI MII Mcr (t)

Cantilever Beam
el cr

(t 0 )

(t

Simple Beam
P P

Pef
cr

Pef

(t

el

(t 0 )

Post-Tensioned Beam
P
PT Tendon
el

(t0)

P
(t ) el (t0)
el

P ef

P ef

1.
2. 3.

4.
5.

Introduction Understanding of Creep & Shrinkage Code Development of Creep & Shrinkage Impact of Creep & Shrinkage on Post-Tensioned Bridges Conclusions

CEB-FIP 1970 Model Code CEB-FIP 1978 Model Code CEB-FIP 1990 Model Code FIB 2010 Draft Model Code ACI-209 BP3

1.
2. 3.

4.
5.

Introduction Understanding of Creep & Shrinkage Code Development of Creep & Shrinkage Impact of Creep & Shrinkage on Post-Tensioned Bridges Conclusions

There are two major impacts of creep and shrinkage on structural concrete
Deformations (simply supported and indeterminate

structures)
Redistribution of stresses / forces on indeterminate

structure, including support reactions

Bearing & Expansion Joint

Bearing

C L

Mid-span Hinge

In-span Hinge

C L

In-span Hinge

Expansion Joint

Bearing

Old Generation of Midspan Hinge (not recommended)

Mid-Span Hinge

Deformation (cm)

2.5
S

In-Span Hinge

1.8%

5.0

7.5

5.1% Span Length: 79m (260 feet)

C L EXP. JT. NO. 3


0.36 0.82 STA. 67+16.50

Deck Profile based on As-Built Dwgs

C L PIER 9
STA. 68+16.59

0.46

C L PIER 8
STA. 65+74

Reference Line Existing Deck Profile

BEGIN S.E. TRANSITION


STA. 68+18

C L EXP. JT. NO. 3


0.49 0.84 STA. 67+16.50

Deck Profile based on As-Built Dwgs

C L PIER 9
0.35 STA. 68+16.59

C L PIER 8
STA. 65+74

Reference Line

Existing Deck Profile

Active hinge member

Midspan expansion joint

Typical internal diaphragm Hydraulic jack

Active Hinge
(proposed by Jean M. Muller)

C L Mid-Span Fixed Expansion Joint Sliding

Teflon Surface (typ)

Elastomeric Bearing

Steel Strong Back

Mid-span Hinge with Strong Back

L L

@ TF creep
L

creep = 0.079 x 3.5 x 12 = 3.31

Point of rotation
V

creep 0.079 Degree

3-6 12-0 8-6

Assuming 50% of the creep had been corrected camber during segment casting.
L
o available gap at 60F in 2010

Abutment Back Wall

Abutment 1 = 3-3/4 - 0.5 (3.31) = 2.09 vs 1.75


Elastomeric Bearing

Abutment 29 = 3-3/8 - 0.5 (3.31) = 1.75 vs 1

End Span Girder Rotation at Abutment 1


(Varina-Enon Bridge Case Study)
0.4

Vertical Displacement (in)

0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1

0.05
0 -0.05 0 200 400 600 800

Distance Along the Bridge (ft)

Camber Diagram of Unit 1 at T =

Abutment
Span 1

Expansion Joint at Abutment

C L

Expansion Joint Top Plate Bottom Pot

Ideal/preferred position at T=

>X C L Top Plate creep at T =

Incorrect position at T=

C L Bottom Pot X min. C L Top Plate e= creep at T =

Correct bearing & joint expansion preset at construction

C L Bottom Pot

Over Extended of Bearing Top Plate

Top Abutment Elevation

Roadway Axis Girder Axis

A
Support Axis

BAD

GOOD

SECTION A-A

BAD STRATEGY

GOOD STRATEGY

Torsional Creep Deformation in Horizontally Curved Bridge

Introduction
Understanding of Creep & Shrinkage Code Development of Creep & Shrinkage

Impact of Creep & Shrinkage on Post-Tensioned

Bridges Conclusions

In order to avoid the negative impacts of long-term creep and shrinkage:


1. Good understanding of creep and shrinkage behaviors 2. Accurate estimation of creep and shrinkage on structural

concrete design
3. Proper counter measures of long-term creep and

shrinkage effects
4. Implement simple structural details