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Frequency Planning Concept In GSM

By
T. K. Mondal

JTO/NSCBTTC

Frequency Planning in GSM

Objective is to distribute available frequencies over the network.


Frequency planning is dependent on available ARFCN and Traffic . Two type of frequency model

Frequency Reuse Model Frequency hoping Model

Frequency Reuse Model

Operators is given a limited no of radio frequency.


Operator has to cover a large area. Minimum one ARFCN is required per cell.

More than one ARFCN is required per cell to accommodate more no of customer.
Solution :

Operator has to re-use the same frequencies over and again - Frequency Reuse concept.

Frequency Reuse Model

Area is subdivided into cells.


A subset of frequencies fi is assigned to each cell i from total set of assigned frequencies.

To neighbouring cells cannot be assigned with the same frequency to avoid interference.
Only at a distance D, same frequency can be reused.

Frequency Reuse Model

While planning for frequency reuse co-channel and adjacent channel interference to be considered.
Co-channel interference:

When ARFCN of same frequency are transmitted in close proximity to each other.
Adjacent Channel Interference :

When a RF source of nearby frequency interfers with the RF carrier

Frequency Reuse Model


Effect of Co-channel interference:

Co- channel interference is a function of Q,


where Q= D/R . Higher Q :

Less interference but higher N


More cluster size Less RF/ cell Less traffic capacity
Lower Q :

Higher interference but higher traffic capacity.

Frequency Reuse Distance

5R
4

6 1 3 7

D
6 5 2 4 1 7 2

D = distance between co cells. If D is chosen sufficiently large, co channel interference remains small.

Frequency Reuse Model


6 5 1 4 3 7 6

Cluster
5
2 4 3 1 2

7
1

Cluster :

A group of adjacent cells where on frequencies are re-used.


Size of cluster = No of cells per cluster. Size of cluster determine frequency distance.

Large Cluster size, the larger the frequency reuse distance,


large S/N ratio

Larger cluster size, less no of frequency/cell, less


subscriber/cell.

Frequency Reuse Model

5
1 4 3

7 5 2 4

6 7 1 1 2

3
Co -cells

Co-Cells : Cells using the same group of frequencies.

Frequency Reuse Model

C1

C3

C1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1 B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
C4

Cluster in Sectorized cell

B4
A1 C4 B4 A1

Frequency Reuse Model


6 5 1 4 3

N=7
7
5 2 4 3 1 2

Reuse Pattern Number:

6
7 1

Number of cells in a cluster.

For omni-direction cell Re-use pattern = 1, 3, 4, 7, 12

Frequency Reuse Model

For Sectorized cell Re-use patterns = 1X3, 3X9 , 4X12, 7x 21

C1

C1

A1
B1 C1 A1 B1

A1

1X3 re-use pattern N=3

B1

Frequency Reuse Model


C3 A3 B3 C2 A2 B2 C1 A1 B1 B3 C3 A3 B2 B1 C2 A2 C1 A1 B3 B2 C3 A3 C2

A2

3X9 re-use pattern or 3 site/ 3 cell N=9

Frequency Reuse Model


C1

C3

C1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1 B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
C4

4X12 re-use pattern


or 4 site/ 3 cell

B4
A1 C4 B4 A1

N=12

Formation OF 4X12 re-use pattern


C1 A1

C4
A4 B4 C3 A3 B3 C2 B2 C1

C2
A2 B2 C3

B1 C2 A2 B2 C3 A3 B3 C4 A4 B4

A1
B1 C4 A2 B4 A4 B3

A3

Frequency allocation in 4 X 12 pattern


Cell C3 C1 F 1 2 3 F 13 14 15 F 25 26 27

C1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1 B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1

A1
C4

A2 A3

A4
B1 B2

4
5 6

16
17 18

28
29 30

B4
A1 C4 B4 A1

B3
B4 C1 C2 C3 C4

7
8 9 10 11 12

19
20 21 22 23 24

31
32 33 34 35 36

Frequency Hoping Model

Frequency Hoping ?
Carrier frequency (ARFCN) of the signal during transmission changes continuously. Each logical radio channel modifies the physical transmission frequency from one TDMA frame to the next. Frequency hopping allows the RF channel used for carrying signaling channel timeslots or TCH timeslots to change frequency every frame(4.615ms).

All MSs are capable of frequency hopping under the control of the BSS.
BSS must include the frequency hopping option.

Frequency Hoping Principle

fN

f4

f3

f2

f1

TDMA Frame : 1 TDMA Frame : 2 TDMA Frame : 3 Physical Ch: 6

TDMA Frame : N

Advantage of Frequency Hoping

Provides high degree of immunity to cochannel interference, due to the effect of interference averaging . The effective radio channel interference averaging assumes that radio channel interference does not exists on every allocated RF channel every frame so that the receive interference will be only for a part of the time.

Frequency Reuse Model


Frequency Hoping configuration is done through 4 parameter :

FN : TDMA Frame Number broad cast on


SCH channel.

MA : Mobile Allocation List defining the list


of hopping frequencies.

MAIO : Mobile Allocation Index offset. HSN : Hoping Sequence Number defining
the pseudo random sequence.

Frequency Reuse Model

Sequence orthogonality is obtained in a cell when

Same HSN and MA list are given to all


TDMA.

MAIO are different


Hoping use Rate = No of hopping TRX/No of Hopping frequency

Frequency Reuse Model


HSN : Hoping Sequence Number

The HSN is used to define the hopping


sequence from one frequency list. It is a number that defines the frequency hopping algorithm, Can vary from 0 to 63, ie there are 64 hopping algorithms to be used in GSM. If HSN =0, frequency hopping sequence is cyclic If HSN 0 hoping sequence is pseudorandom

Frequency Reuse Model


HSN : Example

Suppose MA List
= f12, f13, f14, f15 If HSN =0 , Hoping Sequence may be : f12, f13, f14, f15,f12, f13, f14, f15 . f13, f14, f15, f12,f13, f14, f15, f12.. f14, f15, f12, f13,f14, f15, f12, f13.. f15, f12, f13, f14, f15, f12, f13, f14. It is recommended to have the SAME HSN for ALL SECTORS of the BTS.

Frequency Reuse Model


MAIO: Mobile Allocation Index Offset.

MAIO

indicate the initial position of frequency - among the frequencies available in MA List. MAIO points to the starting frequency of Hoping Sequence(HSN). It is used as a input to HSN algorithm. The value of MAIO ranges between 0 to (N-1) where N is the number of frequencies defined in the MA list.

MAIO : Example
Suppose MA List = f12, f13, f14, f15

If HSN =0 , Hoping Sequences will be :


MAIO : 0 f12, f13, f14, f15,f12, f13, f14, f15 . MAIO : 1 f13, f14, f15, f12,f13, f14, f15, f12.. MAIO : 2 f14, f15, f12, f13,f14, f15, f12, f13.. MAIO : 3 f15, f12, f13, f14, f15, f12, f13, f14. MAIO=0 indicate f12, MAIO =1 indicate f13 and so on ..

HSN, MAIO: Example


Suppose MA List = {81, 82, 87, 88, 111, 112, 113, 115,
116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124 }

HSN 0 ,
MAIO=0 , HSN 0 81, 119, 111, 124, 113, 120,87, 122, .(pseudo random sequence) MAIO : 1, HSN 0 82, 116, 124, 88, 122, 116, 111, 82, 124 . . MAIO : 2, HSN 0 83, 119, 124, 88, 116, 122, 113 .

HSN Algorithm

HSN, MAIO: Planning

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN : 1 MAIO : 0 HSN : 1 MAIO : 0

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN : 3 MAIO : 0

HSN : 2 MAIO : 0

MAIO should not be same in adjacent cell or


sectors of a cell It will create co-channel interference

HSN, MAIO: Planning

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN : 1 MAIO : 2 HSN : 1 MAIO : 1

HSN : 2 MAIO : 0
HSN : 2 MAIO : 1

HSN :2 MAIO : 2

MAIO should not be consecutive in adjacent


cells cell or sectors of a cell It will create adjacent channel interference

HSN, MAIO: Planning

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN : 1 MAIO :8 HSN : 1 MAIO : 4

HSN : 2 MAIO : 0
HSN : 2 MAIO : 4

HSN :2 MAIO :8

MAIO difference in adjacent sector generally


3 / 4 ( Not M1, M2, M3 should be M1,M4,M8). It will reduce adjacent channel interference

HSN, MAIO: Planning

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN : 1 MAIO :8 HSN : 1 MAIO : 4

HSN : 2 MAIO : 0
HSN : 2 MAIO : 4

HSN :2 MAIO :8

HSN, MAIO combination should be different in


adjacent cell.

HSN, MAIO: Planning

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN : 1 MAIO :8 HSN : 1 MAIO : 4

HSN : 2 MAIO : 0
HSN : 2 MAIO : 4

HSN :2 MAIO :8

In a cell MAIO can be varied in different sector with


same HSN and same MAIO pattern can be repeated in adjacent cell with different HSN

HSN, MAIO: Planning

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN :3 MAIO :0 HSN : 2 MAIO : 0

HSN :1 MAIO : 4
HSN : 2 MAIO : 4

HSN :3 MAIO :4

In a cell HSN can be varied in different sector with


same MAIO and same HSN pattern can be repeated in adjacent cell with different MAIO.

C4
A4 B4 C3 A3 B3 C2 B2 C1

C2
A2 B2 C3

A1
B1 C4 A2 B4 A4 B3

A3

Frequency Reuse Model

ARFCN are divided into Non hoping(NH)


and Hoping ARFCN.

NH frequencies are used for BCCH


transmission.

1 BCCH on fixed frequency is required to


listen broadcast and through this Hoping sequence are known by MS.

BCCH, timeslot 0 will never hop.


Any timeslot with CCCH will never hop.

BCCH Frequency Allocation


C1 Sector /Cell Hoping ARFCN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Cell A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3 A4 B4 Hoping ARFCN 1 5 9 2 6 10 3 7 11 4 8

C3

C1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1 B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
C4

A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3

B4
A1 C4 B4 A1

C4

12

C4

12

Frequency Hoping Principle for a sector

TS TRX 1 (BCCH) TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4

0 F1 MA MA MA

1 F1 MA MA MA

2 F1 MA MA MA

3 F1 MA MA MA

4 F1 MA MA MA

5 F1 MA MA MA

6 F1 MA MA MA

7 F1 MA MA MA

Coniguration for a Cell


C


A/ BCCH HF HF HF B/ BCCH HF HF HF C/ BCCH HF HF HF

TS TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4

HSN, MAIO planning in 4 site/3 sector pattern

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0,6,11 HSN : 1 MAIO : 2,8,13

HSN :1 MAIO : 4,10,15 HSN : 5 MAIO : 0,6,11 HSN :5 MAIO : 2,8,10

HSN : 3 MAIO : 0,6,11

HSN :3 MAIO : 2,8,10 HSN : 7 MAIO : HSN :5 0,6,11 MAIO : 4,10,15 HSN :7 MAIO : 2,8,10

HSN :3 MAIO : 4,10,15

HSN :7 MAIO : 4,10,15

MAIO Pattern for 3 sector/ 4 TRE site

TRX TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4

A/

B/

C/

BCCH BCCH BCCH 0 6 11 2 8 13 4 10 15

Coniguration for 4 site/3 sector


Cell Type : 1 TS TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 A/ 1 HF HF B/ 5 HF HF C/ 9 HF HF TS TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 Cell Type : 3 A/ 3 HF HF B/ 7 HF HF C/ 11 HF HF

TRX 4

HF

HF

HF

TRX 4

HF

HF

HF

Cell Type : 2 TS TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 A/ 2 HF HF HF B/ 6 HF HF HF C/ 10 HF HF HF TS

Cell Type : 4 A/ 4 HF HF HF B/ 8 HF HF HF C/ 12 HF HF HF TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4

BCCH, HSN, MAIO for Cell Type :1

A/ TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 1 HSN =1 MAIO =0 HSN =1 MAIO =6 HSN =1 MAIO =11

B/ 5 HSN =1 MAIO =2 HSN =1 MAIO =8 HSN =1 MAIO =13

C/ 9 HSN =1 MAIO =4 HSN =1 MAIO =10 HSN =1 MAIO =15

BCCH, HSN, MAIO for Cell Type :2

A/ TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 2 HSN =3

B/ 6 HSN =3

C/ 10 HSN =3

MAIO =0
HSN =3 MAIO =6 HSN =3 MAIO =11

MAIO =2
HSN =3 MAIO =8 HSN =3 MAIO =13

MAIO =4
HSN =3 MAIO =10 HSN =3 MAIO =15

BCCH, HSN, MAIO for Cell Type :3

A/ TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 3 HSN =5

B/ 7 HSN =5

C/ 11 HSN =5

MAIO =0
HSN =5 MAIO =6 HSN =5 MAIO =11

MAIO =2
HSN =5 MAIO =8 HSN =5 MAIO =13

MAIO =4
HSN =5 MAIO =10 HSN =5 MAIO =15

BCCH, HSN, MAIO for Cell Type :4

A/ TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 4 HSN =7 MAIO =0 HSN =7 MAIO =6 HSN =7 MAIO =11

B/ 8 HSN =7 MAIO =2 HSN =7 MAIO =8 HSN =7 MAIO =13

C/ 12 HSN =7 MAIO =4 HSN =7 MAIO =10 HSN =7 MAIO =15

Mapping Consideration
BCCH, timeslot 0 will never hop.

Any timeslot with CCCH will never hop.


SDCCH can be configured on hoping TRX
TS TRX 1 (BCCH) TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 0 1 2 3 TCH TCH TCH TCH 4 TCH TCH TCH TCH 5 TCH TCH TCH TCH 6 TCH TCH TCH TCH 7 TCH TCH TCH TCH BCC SDC TCH H CH SDC TCH CH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

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