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Frequency Planning Concept In GSM

By
T. K. Mondal

JTO/NSCBTTC

Objective is to distribute available frequencies over the network.

Frequency planning is dependent on available ARFCN and Traffic . Two type of frequency model

Operators is given a limited no of radio frequency.

Operator has to cover a large area. Minimum one ARFCN is required per cell.

More than one ARFCN is required per cell to accommodate more no of customer.
Solution :

Operator has to re-use the same frequencies over and again - Frequency Reuse concept.

Area is subdivided into cells.

A subset of frequencies fi is assigned to each cell i from total set of assigned frequencies.

To neighbouring cells cannot be assigned with the same frequency to avoid interference.
Only at a distance D, same frequency can be reused.

Frequency Reuse Model

While planning for frequency reuse co-channel and adjacent channel interference to be considered.
Co-channel interference:

When ARFCN of same frequency are transmitted in close proximity to each other.

Frequency Reuse Model

Effect of Co-channel interference:

Co- channel interference is a function of Q,

where Q= D/R . Higher Q :

Less interference but higher N

More cluster size Less RF/ cell Less traffic capacity
Lower Q :

Frequency Reuse Distance

5R
4

6 1 3 7

D
6 5 2 4 1 7 2

D = distance between co cells. If D is chosen sufficiently large, co channel interference remains small.

6 5 1 4 3 7 6

Cluster
5
2 4 3 1 2

7
1

Cluster :

A group of adjacent cells where on frequencies are re-used.

Size of cluster = No of cells per cluster. Size of cluster determine frequency distance.

large S/N ratio

subscriber/cell.

5
1 4 3

7 5 2 4

6 7 1 1 2

3
Co -cells

Frequency Reuse Model

C1

C3

C1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1 B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
C4

B4
A1 C4 B4 A1

6 5 1 4 3

N=7
7
5 2 4 3 1 2

6
7 1

C1

C1

A1
B1 C1 A1 B1

A1

B1

Frequency Reuse Model

C3 A3 B3 C2 A2 B2 C1 A1 B1 B3 C3 A3 B2 B1 C2 A2 C1 A1 B3 B2 C3 A3 C2

A2

Frequency Reuse Model

C1

C3

C1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1 B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
C4

4X12 re-use pattern

or 4 site/ 3 cell

B4
A1 C4 B4 A1

N=12

Formation OF 4X12 re-use pattern

C1 A1

C4
A4 B4 C3 A3 B3 C2 B2 C1

C2
A2 B2 C3

B1 C2 A2 B2 C3 A3 B3 C4 A4 B4

A1
B1 C4 A2 B4 A4 B3

A3

Frequency allocation in 4 X 12 pattern

Cell C3 C1 F 1 2 3 F 13 14 15 F 25 26 27

C1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1 B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1

A1
C4

A2 A3

A4
B1 B2

4
5 6

16
17 18

28
29 30

B4
A1 C4 B4 A1

B3
B4 C1 C2 C3 C4

7
8 9 10 11 12

19
20 21 22 23 24

31
32 33 34 35 36

Frequency Hoping Model

Frequency Hoping ?
Carrier frequency (ARFCN) of the signal during transmission changes continuously. Each logical radio channel modifies the physical transmission frequency from one TDMA frame to the next. Frequency hopping allows the RF channel used for carrying signaling channel timeslots or TCH timeslots to change frequency every frame(4.615ms).

All MSs are capable of frequency hopping under the control of the BSS.
BSS must include the frequency hopping option.

fN

f4

f3

f2

f1

TDMA Frame : 1 TDMA Frame : 2 TDMA Frame : 3 Physical Ch: 6

TDMA Frame : N

Provides high degree of immunity to cochannel interference, due to the effect of interference averaging . The effective radio channel interference averaging assumes that radio channel interference does not exists on every allocated RF channel every frame so that the receive interference will be only for a part of the time.

Frequency Reuse Model

Frequency Hoping configuration is done through 4 parameter :

SCH channel.

MA : Mobile Allocation List defining the list

of hopping frequencies.

MAIO : Mobile Allocation Index offset. HSN : Hoping Sequence Number defining
the pseudo random sequence.

TDMA.

MAIO are different

Hoping use Rate = No of hopping TRX/No of Hopping frequency

Frequency Reuse Model

HSN : Hoping Sequence Number

The HSN is used to define the hopping

sequence from one frequency list. It is a number that defines the frequency hopping algorithm, Can vary from 0 to 63, ie there are 64 hopping algorithms to be used in GSM. If HSN =0, frequency hopping sequence is cyclic If HSN 0 hoping sequence is pseudorandom

Frequency Reuse Model

HSN : Example

Suppose MA List
= f12, f13, f14, f15 If HSN =0 , Hoping Sequence may be : f12, f13, f14, f15,f12, f13, f14, f15 . f13, f14, f15, f12,f13, f14, f15, f12.. f14, f15, f12, f13,f14, f15, f12, f13.. f15, f12, f13, f14, f15, f12, f13, f14. It is recommended to have the SAME HSN for ALL SECTORS of the BTS.

Frequency Reuse Model

MAIO: Mobile Allocation Index Offset.

MAIO

indicate the initial position of frequency - among the frequencies available in MA List. MAIO points to the starting frequency of Hoping Sequence(HSN). It is used as a input to HSN algorithm. The value of MAIO ranges between 0 to (N-1) where N is the number of frequencies defined in the MA list.

MAIO : Example
Suppose MA List = f12, f13, f14, f15

If HSN =0 , Hoping Sequences will be :

MAIO : 0 f12, f13, f14, f15,f12, f13, f14, f15 . MAIO : 1 f13, f14, f15, f12,f13, f14, f15, f12.. MAIO : 2 f14, f15, f12, f13,f14, f15, f12, f13.. MAIO : 3 f15, f12, f13, f14, f15, f12, f13, f14. MAIO=0 indicate f12, MAIO =1 indicate f13 and so on ..

HSN, MAIO: Example

Suppose MA List = {81, 82, 87, 88, 111, 112, 113, 115,
116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124 }

HSN 0 ,
MAIO=0 , HSN 0 81, 119, 111, 124, 113, 120,87, 122, .(pseudo random sequence) MAIO : 1, HSN 0 82, 116, 124, 88, 122, 116, 111, 82, 124 . . MAIO : 2, HSN 0 83, 119, 124, 88, 116, 122, 113 .

HSN Algorithm

HSN, MAIO: Planning

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN : 1 MAIO : 0 HSN : 1 MAIO : 0

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN : 3 MAIO : 0

HSN : 2 MAIO : 0

MAIO should not be same in adjacent cell or

sectors of a cell It will create co-channel interference

HSN, MAIO: Planning

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN : 1 MAIO : 2 HSN : 1 MAIO : 1

HSN : 2 MAIO : 0
HSN : 2 MAIO : 1

HSN :2 MAIO : 2

MAIO should not be consecutive in adjacent

cells cell or sectors of a cell It will create adjacent channel interference

HSN, MAIO: Planning

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN : 1 MAIO :8 HSN : 1 MAIO : 4

HSN : 2 MAIO : 0
HSN : 2 MAIO : 4

HSN :2 MAIO :8

MAIO difference in adjacent sector generally

3 / 4 ( Not M1, M2, M3 should be M1,M4,M8). It will reduce adjacent channel interference

HSN, MAIO: Planning

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN : 1 MAIO :8 HSN : 1 MAIO : 4

HSN : 2 MAIO : 0
HSN : 2 MAIO : 4

HSN :2 MAIO :8

HSN, MAIO: Planning

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN : 1 MAIO :8 HSN : 1 MAIO : 4

HSN : 2 MAIO : 0
HSN : 2 MAIO : 4

HSN :2 MAIO :8

In a cell MAIO can be varied in different sector with

same HSN and same MAIO pattern can be repeated in adjacent cell with different HSN

HSN, MAIO: Planning

HSN : 1 MAIO : 0
HSN :3 MAIO :0 HSN : 2 MAIO : 0

HSN :1 MAIO : 4
HSN : 2 MAIO : 4

HSN :3 MAIO :4

In a cell HSN can be varied in different sector with

same MAIO and same HSN pattern can be repeated in adjacent cell with different MAIO.

C4
A4 B4 C3 A3 B3 C2 B2 C1

C2
A2 B2 C3

A1
B1 C4 A2 B4 A4 B3

A3

ARFCN are divided into Non hoping(NH)

and Hoping ARFCN.

transmission.

1 BCCH on fixed frequency is required to

listen broadcast and through this Hoping sequence are known by MS.

BCCH, timeslot 0 will never hop.

Any timeslot with CCCH will never hop.

BCCH Frequency Allocation

C1 Sector /Cell Hoping ARFCN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Cell A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3 A4 B4 Hoping ARFCN 1 5 9 2 6 10 3 7 11 4 8

C3

C1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1 B3 C4 A4 B4 C3 A1

A3
B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3 B1 C2 A2 B2 C1 A3

A1
C4

A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3

B4
A1 C4 B4 A1

C4

12

C4

12

0 F1 MA MA MA

1 F1 MA MA MA

2 F1 MA MA MA

3 F1 MA MA MA

4 F1 MA MA MA

5 F1 MA MA MA

6 F1 MA MA MA

7 F1 MA MA MA

Coniguration for a Cell

C

A/ BCCH HF HF HF B/ BCCH HF HF HF C/ BCCH HF HF HF

HSN : 3 MAIO : 0,6,11

HSN :3 MAIO : 2,8,10 HSN : 7 MAIO : HSN :5 0,6,11 MAIO : 4,10,15 HSN :7 MAIO : 2,8,10

A/

B/

C/

Coniguration for 4 site/3 sector

Cell Type : 1 TS TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 A/ 1 HF HF B/ 5 HF HF C/ 9 HF HF TS TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 Cell Type : 3 A/ 3 HF HF B/ 7 HF HF C/ 11 HF HF

TRX 4

HF

HF

HF

TRX 4

HF

HF

HF

BCCH, HSN, MAIO for Cell Type :1

A/ TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 1 HSN =1 MAIO =0 HSN =1 MAIO =6 HSN =1 MAIO =11

A/ TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 2 HSN =3

B/ 6 HSN =3

C/ 10 HSN =3

MAIO =0
HSN =3 MAIO =6 HSN =3 MAIO =11

MAIO =2
HSN =3 MAIO =8 HSN =3 MAIO =13

MAIO =4
HSN =3 MAIO =10 HSN =3 MAIO =15

A/ TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 3 HSN =5

B/ 7 HSN =5

C/ 11 HSN =5

MAIO =0
HSN =5 MAIO =6 HSN =5 MAIO =11

MAIO =2
HSN =5 MAIO =8 HSN =5 MAIO =13

MAIO =4
HSN =5 MAIO =10 HSN =5 MAIO =15

BCCH, HSN, MAIO for Cell Type :4

A/ TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 4 HSN =7 MAIO =0 HSN =7 MAIO =6 HSN =7 MAIO =11

C/ 12 HSN =7 MAIO =4 HSN =7 MAIO =10 HSN =7 MAIO =15

Mapping Consideration
BCCH, timeslot 0 will never hop.

Any timeslot with CCCH will never hop.

SDCCH can be configured on hoping TRX
TS TRX 1 (BCCH) TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 0 1 2 3 TCH TCH TCH TCH 4 TCH TCH TCH TCH 5 TCH TCH TCH TCH 6 TCH TCH TCH TCH 7 TCH TCH TCH TCH BCC SDC TCH H CH SDC TCH CH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

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