Sunteți pe pagina 1din 24

APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA

RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR


Studiu de caz
1. Colaps progresiv


2. Cauze: - naturale
- man-made


3. Istoric - Roman Point Apt. Building /London, 1968
- The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building / Oklahoma City, 1995

APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Roman Point Apt. Building
London, 1968

APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building / Oklahoma City, 1995
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
1. Programe de calcul comerciale (FEM) simple : LSA
- avansate: NSA& NDA

2. ASI (Applied Science International)
ELS software -> AEM
- comportare elastica
- fisurare
- deformatii mari
- separarea/ruperea unor elemente
- miscarea de rigid a corpurilor dizlocate
- coliziuni intre corpuri dizlocate si structura
- identificarea cauzelor si prognozarea efectelor

Prognozarea riscului de colaps progresiv
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Pod metalic in Mineapolis (2007)
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Oklahoma City (1995)
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
1. Filosofie de proiectare
2. Alternative Path Method (APT)

GSA Guidelines (2003)

analiza seismica

- continuitate structurala
- redundanta structurala
- ductilitate
3. Proceduri: missing column scenarios - Dept. of Defence (DoD)
Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC 4-023- 03- revised July 2009)
4. Cerinte de cod:
EN 1990 sect. 2.1 IBC 2009
ASCE/SEI 7-05 EC1
ACI 318-05 BS 5950-2000
NBC 2005/Canada Saudi Building Code (SBC 301-2007)



APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
1. P100-2006 sect. 4.4.1.2 cerinte de evitare a CP:

2. Proiectare antiseismica & integritate structurala

3. Studii teoretice:

* Baldridge & Humay (2003) 12 etaje - zona 2B (UBC)
- zona 4

Progressive Colapse vs. Seismic Design
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Baldridge & Humay (2003)
Fig. 1: Effects of losing an external column to a blast loading: (a) exterior blast loading;
(b) conventional design: progressive collapse; and (c) alternate load path design: no
progressive collapse
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Baldridge & Humay (2003)
Fig. 2: Response of beam for missing column scenario: (a) gravity-load designed beam;
and (b) seismically designed beam
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Bilow & Kamara (2004)
12 E - 3 x 7,30m ; 5 x 7,30 m
3 categorii seismice (A, C, D)
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Wei Yi et al. ACI Structural Journal August 2008
Experimental Study on PC-Resistant Behaviour of RC Frame Structures
- Stadii de lucru
- Mecanisme de transmitere a solicitarii
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Kazunori Fujikake Journal of Structural Engineering August 2009
Impact Response of RC Beam
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Kazunori Fujikake Journal of Structural Engineering August 2009
Impact Response of RC Beam
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Kazunori Fujikake Journal of Structural Engineering August 2009
Impact Response of RC Beam
Takahashi (JSCE 1993) :
Rezistenta otelului sub solicitari dinamice
Modelarea comportarii dinamice a betonului
the initial elastic modulus E
0d
, the dynamic compressive
strength f
cd
, and the strain corresponding to the dynamic
compressive strength cd. Those parameters are given as
a function of the strain rate as follows Fujikake et al.
2001
Variatia intensitatii fortei de impact, in functie de inaltimea
de cadere si de timp
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Kazunori Fujikake Journal of Structural Engineering August 2009 Impact Response of RC Beam
Comparatie intre comportarea sub sarcini statice si dinamice (impact)
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Ioani, Cucu & Mircea C. (2007), (2008), (2010):
Ioani, Marchis, Moldovan, Bredean & Botez (2012): Vulnerability to progressive collapse of RC buildings
Figure 1. Possible blast behavior of frame structure.
Fig. 4. Missing column scenarios for exterior columns
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
+ + =
st
st
st dyn
P
h
P P
2
1 1
(1)
) 25 . 0 ( 2 L D Load + =
(2)
Obiective:

Following the GSA Guidelines (2003)-LSA [3], the present paper examines the vulnerability of a medium-rise building,
having a RC reinforced concrete framed structure seismically designed for Bucharest (Romania) according to P 100-92,
a zone of high seismic risk (degree VIII on the MSK Intensity Scale, zone C, seismic coefficient PGA/g=0.20).
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Ioani, Cucu & Mircea C. (2007), (2008), (2010):
Seismic design vs. progressive collapse: a RC framed structure case study
where Q
UD
- acting force (demand) in the component or connection (moment, axial force, shear and possible combined
forces) and Q
CE
- expected ultimate un-factored capacity of the component or connection (=1.0).
Expected strength is defined as the mean maximum resistance expected over a range of deformations to which the
concrete component is likely to be subjected( DoD 2009); expected yield strength of reinforcing steel includes
consideration of material overstrength and strain hardening( 1.25-GSA; 1.50-DoD/concrete&1.25-DoD/steel).
According to the GSA Guidelines, acceptance criteria, the allowable DCR values for structural elements are: DCR 2.0
for typical structural configurations and DCR 1.5 for atypical structural configurations. Using the DCR concept of linear
elastic approach, structural elements that have DCR values exceeding the allowable magnitudes are considered to be
severely damaged or collapsed.
It is underlined that if the DCR for any member is exceeded, based upon shear force, the member is to be regarded as
a failed member. In addition, if the flexural DCR values for both ends of a member as well as the span itself are
exceeded (creating the classical three hinged failure mechanism), the member is also to be seen as a failed member.
For continuous elements, the flexural DCR value at an element section may exceed 1.0 because in this case flexural
demand can be redistributed along the length of the element to sections that have reserve flexural capacity [Baldrige &
Humay, 2005].
The magnitude and distribution of these demands will be given by the concept of Demand Capacity Ratios defined
as [GSA, 2003]:
CE UD
Q Q = DCR (3)
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Ioani, Cucu & Mircea C. (2007), (2008), (2010):
Seismic design vs. progressive collapse: a RC framed structure case study
Modelul structurii analizate cu programul
Autodesk ROBOT Structural Analysis
Fig. 5. ROBOT Millenium model of a 13-story
RC building: missing column scenarios.
Analiza seismica
The seismic analysis is performed for Bucharest
(zone C on the Romanian zonation map with
ks=PGA/g=0.2).
For Romania, the seismic coefficient ks varies from
0.08 to a maximum value of 0.32.
The magnitude of total equivalent seismic force S that
enters the load combination (Eq. 4) is calculated as
follows [P100-92, 1992]:
( ) G G T k S
s
0945 . 0 = = c | o
(5)
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Ioani, Cucu & Mircea C. (2007), (2008), (2010):
Seismic design vs. progressive collapse: a RC framed structure case study
Detalii de armare
Proprietatile materialelor
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Ioani, Cucu & Mircea C. (2007), (2008), (2010):
Seismic design vs. progressive collapse: a RC framed structure case study
Eforturi in structura avariata: cazul C1
Figure 4.
Bending moments and flexure DCR values in beams,
case C1, transversal exterior frame under 2(D+0.25L).
Figure 5.
Shear forces and shear DCR values in beams, case C1,
transversal exterior frame under 2(D+0.25L).
APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Ioani, Cucu & Mircea C. (2007), (2008), (2010):
Seismic design vs. progressive collapse: a RC framed structure case study
Structura avariata: cazul C3
Figure 6.
Damaged structure (case C3) under gravity loads
2(D+0.25L): beam moment diagrams
Figure 7.
Damaged structure (case C3) under gravity loads
2(D+0.25L): beam DCR values for flexure

APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Ioani, Cucu & Mircea C. (2007), (2008), (2010):
Seismic design vs. progressive collapse: a RC framed structure case study
Structura avariata: cazul C3
Figure 8.
Damaged structure (case C3) under gravity loads
2(D+0.25L): beam shear diagrams
Figure 9.
Damaged structure (case C3) under gravity loads
2(D+0.25L): beam DCR values for shear

APLICATII ALE MECANICII MATERIALELOR IN EVALUAREA
RISCULUI DE COLAPS PROGRESIV AL STRUCTURILOR
Studiu de caz
Ioani, Cucu & Mircea C. (2007), (2008), (2010):
Seismic design vs. progressive collapse: a RC framed structure case study
CONCLUZII & COMENTARII
1) The GSA Guidelines [3] offer a realistic approach and performance criteria for these determinations.
2) A typical medium-rise building (13 stories) having RC frames, seismically designed for the Bucharest a zone of high
seismic risk- does not experience progressive collapse when subjected to different missing column scenarios, according to
GSA Guidelines [3]. Similar results [1] have been found for a 12-story RC framed structure seismically designed for a
moderate (Zone 2B) or a high seismic risk zone (Zone 4) according to the requirements of a Uniform Building Code (UBC-
1991 edition).
3) The concept of DCR offers to engineers a valuable tool to identify the magnitude and distribution of potential areas of
inelastic demands and thus, the extension of potential collapse zone can be evaluated and compared to the maximum
allowable collapse area resulting from the instantaneous removal of an exterior or interior column.
4) The maximum computed DCR values well below the allowable values (2 for typical structural configuration and 1.5 for
atypical configuration) show that RC frames, seismically designed and detailed according to the former Romanian Seismic
Design Code P100-92 [5] for at least zone C on the Romanian territory seismic map (ks=0.20) have an inherent capacity to
better resist progressive collapse.
5) The numerical results indicate the possibility that similar structures erected even in lower seismic areas, for instance zone D
(ks=0.16) or zone E (ks=0.12) [5], to fulfill the requirements for a structure of low potential for progressive collapse.
6) For the Romanian zones of high seismic risks as the zone C (ks=0.20), zone B (ks=0.25) and zone A (ks=0.32) [5], further
analyses are required to determine the vulnerability to progressive collapse of other types of structural systems, including the
existing RC frames of 7 to 9 story high.
7) It has to be underlined that even in the regions of low seismic activity, the use of Special Moment Frames rather than
Ordinary Moment Frames is highly recommended because it involves an average increase in the total construction cost of only
1 to 2 percent, and on the other hand, significantly improves the buildings ability to better resist the extreme loads of a blast
by reducing the potential of progressive collapse following an explosion [8].