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THEORIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONCEPT OF CITIZENSHIP

Presented ByBabandeep Kaur Jaggi (500022263)

Introduction
The concept of citizenship can be traced to the Greek city state Athens- there the people were divided into two classes, citizens and slaves. But in modern times the distinction between people are made -citizens and aliens. Citizens enjoys the status of an individual as a full and responsible member of political community. There are two kinds of citizens : natural citizens and naturalised citizens Citizenship implies full membership of a community Citizenship implies two way relationship between individual and the state- one must fulfil his duties and obligations towards the state and the state grants him civil, political and social rights.

What do you mean by theories?


A theory is a formal idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain something . Theory is a rational abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking. Depending on the context, the results might for example include generalized explanations about nature, how a concept functions etc. One modern group of meanings emphasizes the speculative and generalizing nature of theory.

Theories of Citizenship
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Liberal theory Communitarian theory Marxist theory Pluralist theory Global government and citizenship

Liberal theory of Citizenship


The evolution- in the 17 century and its major concepts are based on the legal theories developed in the Roman Empire. Based on an evolutionary process in which political and social rights follow after civil rights. Therefore, called evolutionary theory of citizenship. According to the theory individuals come together to decide the terms of association and is counter to the idea of class division in the society

Characteristics
It lays emphasizes on the enjoyment of rights regarded as crucial for individual autonomy. These rights are originally civic rights, with increasing emphasis on political rights. Liberals recognize that citizens have certain obligations, such as obedience to the law and payment of taxes, which are essential to maintain the state. According the theory scope of law and government should be minimized to maximize the sphere of individual liberty .

Criticism
This theory is too optimistic Burdens cannot be equally distributed since if somebody is getting something for free somebody else has to pay for it. Absolute equality may lead lead to no competition in the society thus resulting inefficientness in the society

Communitarian theory of Citizenship


The communitarian approach argues that citizens are not dispersed individuals, but each of them is the unit of a community, unlike the liberal theory. The relations, therefore, define participation of citizens with each other and with the communities to which they belong Also known as the Republic theory of Citizenship and insists a strong bond between individual an state

Characteristics
A citizen should identify himself with his community and take active part in the political life Due to this participation only he can work towards attaining a common goal An individual can become a citizen in a true sense only by assimilating with the culture, traditions, beliefs and the sentiments of the community.

Criticism
Suitable to only a small, homogeneous society with common culture and common goals. General will is suppose to cover the individual will of the citizens but , it is not possible in todays complex society. Does not include the perspective of citizens as individuals since the view of the state is supreme.

Marxist theory of Citizenship


This theory treats the rights associated with citizenship as the product of class conflict ,the class has to win these rights for themselves. Three major issues are raised by Anthony Giddens in this concern areo Society is made up of different sections of people and underprivileged have attained their citizenship through struggle and by tilting the power on their side , therefore equal disrtribution should be discouraged.

o According to Giddens citizenship is the product of social movements. The varying strength of the movements decide the benefits given to the citizens. o Giddens also identified two types of citizenship rightsa) Individual freedom and equality before the law signify those types of rights which are won through struggle. b) Economic civil rights signify those rights for which working class and trade unions went against the power system

Criticism
The type of struggles prevalent in the 19 century when this theory was applied, not applicable in the modern times. In the present times it has become very important to maintain a structure of liberal democracy , which is not possible according to this theory. The intensity and types of social movements have changed over a period of time.

Pluralist theory of Citizenship


Pluralist theory of citizenship treats the development of citizenship as a complex and multi-dimensional process. It insists on inquiring into all types of factors because of which we require citizenship like discrimination on grounds of race , religion etc This theory does not provide a fixed framework for the analysis of citizenship.

Characteristics
Demands that the problem of citizenship should be sorted in light of all social movement as they give new direction to the concept It largely deals with the ever expanding scope of citizenship and its implication in the modern scenario. The theory in its self only is a process of formation.

Criticism
Since it is a multi-dimensional process ,it cannot be attributed to a single cause It only tends to focus in one direction neglecting the role of diverse factors responsible for any cause or development. It may also tend to leave some primary aspects of an issue since it is a complex process.

Global Government
Global Government is the notion of a single common political authority for all of humanity. Its modern conception is rooted in European history, particularly in the philosophy of ancient Greece, in the political formation of the Roman Empire. As of 2012[, there is no functioning global international military, executive, legislature, judiciary, or constitution, with jurisdiction over the entire planet. While the United Nation exists, its authority is limited to a mostly advisory role.

Global Citizenship
World citizenship begins with an acceptance of the oneness of the human family and the interconnectedness of the nations . It implies the suppression of cultural diversity, the abolition of national autonomy, nor the imposition of uniformity. World citizenship encompasses the principles of social and economic justice, both within and between nations; equality of the sexes; racial, ethnic, national and religious harmony; and the willingness to sacrifice for the common good.

Conclusion
The raising interest in citizenship and its implications in society is caused by emerging political events, academic debates and policy innovation. The propagation of the theories discussed depends upon the kind of state and population. Any theory it may be citizenship remains integral since its core purpose is to secure a status for the individuals.

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