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are vast natural landscapes in the

form of grasslands,shrublands, woodland s, wetlands, and deserts

do not include barren desert,

farmland, closed canopy forests, or land covered by solid rock, concrete


are distinguished

from pasture
pasture is land used

for grazing

Types of Rangeland

are areas where the vegetation is

dominated by grasses and other herbaceous plants

occur naturally on all continents

except Antarctica

An Inner Mongolian grassland in the People's Republic of China

is a plant community characterized

by vegetation dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, herbs, and geophytes may be unsuitable for human habitation because of the danger of fire.

Scrub vegetation with cactus in Webb County in South Texas

is considered part of the temperate

grasslands, savannas and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.

Prairie, Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA


a grassland ecosystem characterize d by the trees being sufficiently small or widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer

Typical tropical savanna in Northern Australia

it refers to a biome region

characterized by grass land plain without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes

Prairie in Alberta, Canada

is a low-density forest forming open

habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade. Woodlands may support an understory of shrubs and herbaceous plants including grasses

A woodland ecosystem at Morton Arboretum in Illinois

is a landscape or region that

receives an extremely low amount of precipitation, less than enough to support growth of most plant

The Great Victoria Desert in Australia

is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by

low temperatures and short growing seasons. In tundra, the vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. Scattered trees grow in some tundra.

Tundra in Greenland


occurs when plants are exposed to

intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods. it can be caused by either livestock in poorly managed agricultural applications, or by overpopulations of native or non-native wild animals.

reduces the

usefulness, productivity, and biodiversity of the land and is one cause of desertification and erosion

To avoid overgrazing on areas of natural or semi-natural vegetation, you should:

only graze as many animals as the vegetation

will support, taking into account the most sensitive habitats reduce livestock numbers in autumn and winter, when plant growth slows or stops - use away wintering and housing where possible avoid using supplementary feeding to support animals on unproductive land, except when the weather is particularly hard

reduce stock numbers if there is frequent bare

ground, suppressed heather or grass sward heights under five centimetres for rough grassland, and three centimetres reduce stock numbers in woodlands if animals frequently strip bark and/or destroy young sapling trees maintain boundary fences to control movement of stock shepherd open hill land to distribute grazing pressure evenly and avoid localised overgrazing control the spread of bracken to maintain grass and heather areas


is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where

the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use

examples of deforestation include conversion of

forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use

Causes of Deforestation
conversion of forests and woodlands to

agricultural land to feed growing numbers of people; development of cash crops and cattle ranching, both of which earn money for tropical countries; commercial logging (which supplies the world market with woods such as meranti, teak, mahogany and ebony) destroys trees as well as opening up forests for agriculture; felling of trees for firewood and building material; the heavy lopping of foliage for fodder; and heavy browsing of saplings by domestic animals like goats.

Effects of Deforestation
Erosion of Soil

Disruption of the Water Cycle

Loss of Biodiversity Flooding and Drought Climate Change

Solutions to Deforestation

Wildlife Sanctuaries Cities Incentive to Corporates Commercial Forest Plantations Water Management


is a type of land degradation in which a

relatively dry land region becomes increasingly arid it is caused by a variety of factors, such as climate change and human activities
is also the process of fertile land transforming into

desert typically as a result of deforestation, drought or improper/inappropriate agriculture

Causes of Desertification
Overgrazing is the major cause of

desertification worldwide. Cultivation of marginal lands, i.e lands on which there is a high risk of crop failure and a very low economic return. Destruction of vegetation in arid regions, often for fuelwood. Incorrect irrigation practices in arid areas can cause salinization, (the build up of salts in the soil) which can prevent plant growth.

The Effects of Desertification

Soil becomes less usable

Vegetation is Lacked or Damaged

Causes Famine

Food Loss
People near Affected Areas

Solution to Desertification
Tree planting

No till/low till farming

Alternative energy (to relieve

fuelwood fuelwood pressure) Livestock management