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# Knowledge Is Power

SM

## Electrical Insulation Modeling

Doble Engineering Company

Scope

Prevention of Apparatus Failure and Power System Interruptions due to Insulation Failure
Enhance System Reliability Minimize Damage to Apparatus Enhances Safety to Personnel Minimize Loss of Revenue

Benefit

## Better Utilization of Resources Variation of new apparatus

Degradation of Insulation, if detected before failure, can generally be restored to its original condition Defer replacement costs Inspection interval may be safety extended or scheduled to utilize resources efficiently and effectively
Verify that new apparatus meets purchased specification and agrees with factory test reports Assures proper field Assembly

Definition

## What is a Power Factor/ Dissipation Factor/Tangent Delta Test?

The underlying principle of this test is to measure the fundamental AC electrical characteristics of insulation.

Definition

Insulation
IEEE Defines Insulation as:Material or a combination of suitable non-conducting material that provides electrical isolation of two parts at different voltages.

Clarification

## Insulation vs. Dielectric

Insulation relates to a mediums ability to prevent the flow of current, I.e. poor conduc Dielectric implies that the medium or material has specific measurable properties such as: Dielectric Strength, Dielectric Constant, Dielectric Loss and Power Factor.

Dielectric Constant
In 1836, Michael Faraday (the father of the Capacitance -- Just look at his name) discovered that when the plates between a capacitor were filled with another insulating material, the capacitance would change. This factor is the dielectric constant e By definition the dielectric constant of a Vacuum is 1.0. All other dielectric constants are referenced to this standard. Oil e=2.2 Vacuum

Cvacuum=10 pF

Coil = e x Vacuum = 22 pF

Dielectric Loss
Dielectric Loss is the time rate at which electric energy is transformed into heat in a dielectric when it is subjected to an electric field. The heat generated is given in terms of Watts.

iR Watts

Watts = E IR

Watts = Contamination + Deterioration Contamination = Water + Carbon + Dirt Deterioration = Carbon + Corona

Fundamental measurement

## Fundamental AC Electrical Characteristics. . .

Total Current Capacitance Dielectric-Loss Dissipation Factor Power Factor Resistance IT C W %DF or DF %PF or PF R

Perfect Insulator

The Capacitor

## Ideal Insulation System

Evaluating Insulation System

## Fundamental AC Electrical Characteristics. . .

Total Current Capacitance Dielectric-Loss Power Factor Resistance IT C W %PF R

## Real Insulation Model

Simplified Equivalent Circuits of an Insulation Specimen

RS CP CS
Series Circuit Parallel Circuit

Magnitude
-1.5 0.5 1.5 -1 0 1 -0.5

0.1 0.7 1.3 1.9 2.5 3.1 3.7 4.3 4.9 5.5
Tim e

No phase shift

6.1 6.7 7.3 7.9 8.5 9.1 9.7 10.3 10.9 11.5 12.1

Current

Voltage

IR = I T
IR = E/R W=EIR

q=0o
IR

Real Component

## Fundamental AC Electrical Characteristics. . .

Total Current Capacitance Dielectric-Loss Resistance Power Factor IT C W R %PF

## Power Factor Is Size Independent

IC2 IT2
Specimen 1: 5 MVA Transformer Specimen 2: 10MVA Transformer

IC1

IT1

IR1

IR2

Power Factor is an evaluation of the quality of the insulation and is size independent remains the same regardless of the size of the transformer

Definition

## The Term Power/Dissipation Factor Describes

The phase angle relationship between the applied voltage
across and the total current through a specimen. The ratio of the real power to the apparent power.

## How to Calculate Power Factor

Real Power Apparent Power Real Current = Total Current Watts = E x IR

EI I = = EI I
R T

Watts PF = Cosine q = EI
T

## Fundamental AC Electrical Characteristics. . .

Total Current Capacitance Dielectric-Loss Resistance Power Factor IT C W R %PF

Overall evaluate of the insulation (physical and quality) requires at once one other piece of information, size independent

Measurement Overview
Capacitanc e

IT

Reference
Applied Voltage

Measure
Total Current Vector
Angle Magnitude

Calculate

Watts

## Capacitance Power Factor Real Loss (Watts)

Basic Insulation & Power Factor Theory Power Factor Vs. Dissipation Factor Vs. Tangent Delta
IC

IT

d
Q

## I Dissipation Factor = TAN d = I

E

Q 90 89.71 84.26 0

IR

d 0 .29 5.74 90

## % DF (% TAN ) 0 .500 10.05 INFINITY

Voltage sensitive characteristics When we closely examine insulation, very small gaps or voids could exist. These voids develop an electrostatic potential on their surfaces. These small gaps become ionized: Partial Discharge/Corona.
Voids

## Power Factor vs. Test Potential

As test voltage is increased, the power factor will increase depending on the void density.

Tip-Up = Power Factor at Line-to-ground voltage Power Factor at 25% Line-to-ground voltage

%PF

## %PF @ L-G %PF @ 25% L-G

E
25% L-G L-G

Tip-up occurs in dry-type insulation specimens such as Dry Type Transformer, rotating machinery, and cables.

Knowledge Is Power

SM

## Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

Measurement Principle
Doble Engineering Company

Basic Laws of Electricity A Difference in Potential Must Exist Between Two Points in order for current to flow Current Always Returns to Its Source Current Always Takes the Path of Least Resistance

## Test components of the test set Components of Simplified Test Circuits

Power Source Current & Loss Meter High-Voltage Test Cable Low-Voltage Test Cable Insulation Specimen Test Ground

Test Set operation is based on the Relative Positions of the Power Source, Current & Loss Meter, and the Insulation Specimen with respect to the various test leads.

## Grounded-Specimen Test Mode (GSTGround)

High-Voltage Cable

## Test-Set Step-Up Transformer

Guard
Current & Loss Meter

Test Ground

## Grounded-Specimen Test Mode (GSTGuard)

High-Voltage Cable

## Test-Set Step-Up Transformer

Guard
Current & Loss Meter

Test Ground

## Ungrounded-Specimen Test Mode (UST)

High-Voltage Cable

## Test-Set Step-Up Transformer

Guard
Test Ground
Current & Loss Meter

Measure CA and CB
High-Voltage Cable

IA
GST-Ground CA

IB CB

## Test-Set Step-Up Transforme r

Guar d

IA+IB
Current & Loss Meter

Test Ground

Measure CA Guard CB
High-Voltage Cable

GST-Guard CA
Test-Set Step-Up Transformer

IA

IB CB

IB
Guard
Current & Loss Meter

Test Ground

Measure CA Ground/Guard CB
High-Voltage Cable

UST CA

IA

IB

CB

IA
Guard Test Ground
Current & Loss Meter

Measure CA + CB + CC
High-Voltage Cable

IA CA

I
B

IC C
B

CC

## Test-Set Step-Up Transformer

IA+IB +IC
Guard
Current & Loss Meter

Test Ground

Measure CB + CC
High-Voltage Cable

IA CA

I
B

IC C
B

CC

## Test-Set Step-Up Transformer

IB +IC
Guard
Current & Loss Meter

Test Ground

Measure CA + CC
High-Voltage Cable

IA CA

I
B

IC C
B

CC

## Test-Set Step-Up Transforme r

IA+IC
Guard
Current & Loss Meter

Test Ground

Measure CC
High-Voltage Cable

IA CA

I
B

IC C
B

CC

## Test-Set Step-Up Transforme r

IC
Guard
Current & Loss Meter

Test Ground

Measure CA + CB
High-Voltage Cable

IA CA

I
B

IC C
B

CC

## Test-Set Step-Up Transformer

IA+IB
Guard Test Ground
Current & Loss Meter

Measure CB
High-Voltage Cable

IA CA

I
B

IC C
B

CC

## Test-Set Step-Up Transformer

IB
Guard Test Ground
Current & Loss Meter

Measure CA
High-Voltage Cable

IA CA

I
B

IC C
B

CC

## Test-Set Step-Up Transformer

IA
Guard Test Ground
Current & Loss Meter

## Test set shielding

Understanding Electrostatic Interference
Ie+ Ie

I e I e
Ie

I e

I e

I e

## Test Cable Terminations

Ground Shield Guard Shield

Static Source

Ie

High-Voltage Test Cable Test Cable Guard Shield Test Cable Ground Shield

It
Test Set Ground Shield
Test Set Guard Shield

Ie
Specimen

Ie

Ie+ Ie

Ie I e

IT
Current & Loss Meter

Electrostatic Interference
Characteristics of Interference IC

IR

IL

## Electrostatic Interference and Measurements

IT IT

IR

IL

Interference Suppression - Line Sync Reversal (Traditional)
Reports the average of the normal and 180 degree reversed reading at 60 Hz. It is only effective when the specimen current is greater than the interference current. The test frequency is obtained from the 120/240-volt line frequency. Some difficulties may be encountered when using an unstable frequency source with this type of test.
IR
IC

IC IR

## Updated approach to interference cancellation Interference Suppression - Line Frequency Modulation

Reports the computed result at line frequency of the two measurements at +-5% of the line frequency, e.g. 57 and 63 Hz. This method minimizes the effects of electrostatic interference and yields superior results in high levels of electrostatic interference. The test frequency is obtained from an internal oscillator. This type of test creates a synthesized test voltage that is isolated from the input and offers better performance using a generator or DC to AC inverter

Measurements Current

Interference

57

60

63

Frequency (HZ)

## Input voltage interference Causes

Portable power supply Power quality issue

Cannot be suppressed
Stability will affect accuracy of measure

## Issue to consider when testing Safety!

Isolate and ground apparatus under test
Work between visible grounds

Ground M4100 Connect test lead to the M4100 first Never come in contact with the test leads while testing

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