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WiMAX Overview WiMAX System Architecture

14th November 2006 Esa Viitanen

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1 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials

WiMAX Introduction

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Nokia WiMAX Program High-level Direction


Lightweight, high-speed wireless, personal access to Internet with portability Main, initial use case:
Laptop and
Tablet Internet access, Walking between cells without loosing session (IP address) and/or VPN connection

Substantially lower cost of ownership than 3G Hide system complexity from user and operator through automated operability, moving towards plug-and-play Usage of non-cellular licensed spectrum

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WiMAX Terminals
Operators start first with fixed and nomadic terminals
CPE boxes
Ethernet and POTS interfaces Indoor or outdoor antenna Applications:
Broadband Wireless - DSL replacement Wireless Local Loop

PCMCIA cards
For laptops

WiMAX radio integrated in laptops


Intel WiMAX chipset coming to laptops in 2008

And continue later with true mobile terminals


PDAs Mobile handsets
Starting from high-end business phones

Cameras, , with WiMAX radio

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WiMAX, Quick Overview on the Air Interface 802.16e


WiMAX is a TDD system
With various carrier bandwidths: 3.5, 5, 10 MHz

Frequency bands for WiMAX:


2.5 GHz (licensed) 3.5 GHz (licensed) 5.8 GHz (unlicensed)

Amount of spectrum needed:


Min. 10 MHz, typically 15 30 MHz

Typical cell ranges @ 2.5 GHz:


500 1500 m, for suburban and urban areas with indoor coverage 5 10 km with outdoor antenna

Estimated aggregate data rates per sector:


4 Mbps per sector UL for a 10 MHz carrier 13 Mbps per sector DL in case of 3x 10 MHz carrier used

Network architecture:
IP based
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WiMAX, Standards
IEEE 802.16d-2004
Fixed WiMAX air interface standard Nokia does not implement this

IEEE 802.16e-2005
Mobile WiMAX air interface standard Nokia WiMAX is based on this, both for fixed and mobile WiMAX applications PHY and MAC layers

WiMAX Forum recommendations


End-to-End Network Systems Architecture, reference model for
ASN, Access Service Network and
CSN, Core Service Network

WiMAX Forum refers to a number of IETF RFCs

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WiMAX Networks

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WiMAX Network Architecture


There are two basic applications for WiMAX networks
Fixed/nomadic WiMAX
Broadband Wireless access to Internet and Wireless Local Loop In developing countries, rural areas, where copper cables do not exist Providing DSL type access

Mobile WiMAX
Mobile access to Internet Complementary to current cellular networks - data overlay networks

Nokia has two different WiMAX Network Reference Architectures


Fixed WiMAX Reference Architecture for DSL operators
Provides Ethernet transport to the terminals - like DSL access Mobile evolution adds local mobility (local handovers)

Mobile WiMAX Reference Architecture for Mobile Operators


Adds wide area mobility Provides IP transport to the terminals

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Fixed WiMAX Reference Architecture for DSL operators


...
TE TE CPE xDSL DSLAM DSLAM TE
T

...
TE

CPE

xDSL

A10

BRAS

ETH V

ASP / NSP Network infra (AAA, DHCP, billing, subscriber db, )

Laptop PC WiMAX i/f


R1 .16e-2005

BS

TE

BS O&M

OMS
BTSOM

...
TE

CPE

BS

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Mobile WiMAX Evolution for DSL Operators

DSLAM

TE

...
TE

CPE

xDSL

A10

BRAS

ASP / NSP Network infra (AAA, DHCP, billing, subscriber db, )

MSS
Laptop PC WiMAX i/f TE
T

R1

BS

V ETH R3aaa R6

ASN GW

CSN P&CF AAA

...
TE

R1

CPE

BS

BS O&M OMS ASN GW O&M BTSOM

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Fixed WiMAX DSL Network, Physical Architecture


Microwave access LDAP Subs. DB
O&M NetAct

AAA MW IU BRAS Fiber core DSLAM OMS DHCP/DNS FW NAPT Internet

ADSL2+ VDSL2 Copper access GPS BS DSL CPE

ASN

CSN

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Mobile WiMAX Reference Architecture for Mobile Operators


Subs. DB HLR/ HSS
R2 R1 LIG R3aaa Radius

CSN P&CF AAA

Postpaid CG

MSS

BS
R6 R1

X2

ASN GW

X7

Laptop PC WiMAX i/f

BS
R4

Internet CSN HA
R3mip MIP

FW/ NAPT

...
TE
T

...
ASN GW
R1

DHCP/DNS LI G Network Management System (NetAct)

...
TE

CPE

BS
BS O&M OMS ASN GW O&M BTSOM

NWI3

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Mobile WiMAX Network, Physical Architecture


Microwave access Subs. DB
NetAct (OSS)

AAA MW IU Access DHCP/DNS OMS 3xASN GW Fiber core

FW NAPT Internet

LIG

Core DHCP/DNS

HA
GPS BS DSLAM Copper access DSL NT BRAS

ASN
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CSN

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WiMAX Network Elements

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WiMAX Network Elements


Nokia WiMAX Network Elements
BS ASN GW OMS Base Station Access Service Network GateWay Operation and Maintenance Server

Commercial Network Elements


HA AAA Mobile IP Home Agent Authentication, Authorization and Accounting Server

Supplementary Elements
NetAct LIG IP transport elements BS transport elements Network Management System Legal Intercept Gateway Routers, Switches, DHCP/DNS, FW/NAPT Microwave radios, xDSL NT,

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Mobile WiMAX rel 1 Flexi Base Station


Based on the WCDMA Ariel BTS platform Outdoor, 19 3U module

Antenna

Ethernet interface to network


OBSAI RP3-01 optical interface to RF
RF Module

Separate RF head
2TX/2RX, MRC, external antenna RF and BB MIMO capable

OBSAI RP3-01 optical

TX power 36dBm, ~ 4 W Scalable bandwidth up to 10MHz 2.5GHz and 3.5GHz RF and antenna options PUSC (incl all SC) GPS based synchronization

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Frequency Allocation

sector #1 uses 1/3 of all subcarriers

sector #2 uses 1/3 of all subcarriers

all sectors use all subcarriers

cell uses all subcarriers

f1 f1 f1 f1 f3

f2

f1

sector #3 uses 1/3 of all subcarriers

PUSC, Partially Used SubCarriers e.g. 10 MHz bandwidth

FUSC, Fully Used SubCarriers e.g. 3 x 10 MHz bandwidth

Single carrier
(Omni-directional)

1+1+1
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ASN GateWay

Indoor network element 19 wide 1 U high

Main functionalities
Mobility control (Handovers) between Base stations Mobile IP Foreign Agent Authenticator

Security key distribution


Rate Limiting (Downlink) Paging

Scalable element
Scalable by adding additional GWs

Traffic routing and tunneling capacity


2Gbits per box Downlink + 1Gbits Uplink

Control plane capacity


200 WiMAX Base station Cells

Resiliency at network level


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AAA - Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting


Main functionalities:
Authentication algorithms/methods Optionally allocates IP addresses for terminals at authentication phase

Fetches the subscriber profiles from the subscriber and subscription databases
Distributes QoS profiles to ASN GW Reports CDRs to the billing system

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HA - Mobile IP Home Agent


Main functionalities:
Interfaces WiMAX User plane to the Internet, to other IP networks and to services Optionally allocates IP HoA addresses for terminals Performs handovers between ASN GWs Needed only in large networks, for example for mobility between cities Used also for roaming between other networks

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OMS - Operation and Management Server


Main functionalities:
WiMAX RAN mediator for NetAct
Mediates BSs and ASN GWs

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Main WiMAX Interfaces


R1
Encrypted WiMAX air interface Between Base Station and Terminal

R6
Interface between the BS and ASN GW GRE tunneling in user plane and IPSec in control plane

R3
User plane interface between ASN GW and Home Agent - Standard Mobile IP protocol Control plane interface between ASN GW and AAA Server - Standard Radius protocol

V interface
Interface between BS and BRAS (BRAS = Broadband Remote Access Server) Ethernet based interface, according to TR-101, uses 1:1 and 1:N VLAN mappings Needs case by case configuring, to interface with the operators existing DSL network

AAA i/f
LDAP interface to operators Subscriber database, also a MAP interface to 2G/3G HLR/HSS Typically FTP interface for collecting CDRs to operators postpaid billing system AAA interfaces vary according to operators infrastructure and need an integration project
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WiMAX BS Transport

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WiMAX BS Site Transport


Three sector 1+1+1 WiMAX BS average capacity is 8 24 Mbit/sec
Current GSM or WCDMA backhaul transport is too thin - not applicable for WiMAX Build a new transport to the WiMAX BS site

WiMAX Transport solutions


Microwave radio links Ethernet leased lines (fiber or copper, possibly xDSL lines) A number of E1/T1 lines (initial solution only)

WiMAX BS transport interfaces


Ethernet 100Base-TX Gigabit Ethernet 1000Base-SX/LX optical

FlexBus with Ethernet transport, in Rel 2


8 x E1/T1, in Rel 2

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BS Site Transport Options


ASN GW Ethernet E1/T1 other Ethernet Switch Router

DSLAM

Ethernet (Leased) Line

E1/T1 (Leased) Lines

MWR-IU

DSL NT BS BS

BS Chaining
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WiMAX System Features

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WiMAX Authentication
Mobile WiMAX uses EAP Authentication methods
Subscriber authentication, protocol run between the Terminal and AAA server Several EAP methods available
EAP-AKA
EAP-TTLS ...

for USIM
for shared secret

WiMAX DSL interworking architecture uses the DSL Authentication methods available in BRAS
DHCP Option 82 authentication, based on MAC address of the terminal PPP, user name / password authentication

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WiMAX User QoS


Air interface QoS
Nokia Release 1 has three air interface QoS classes
UGS BE - Unsolicited Grant Service, for continuous fixed bit-rate data streams - Best Effort, for other traffic like browsing ertPS - extended real time Polling Service, for VoIP traffic

Implementation in BS scheduler

Access Transport Network QoS


Two priorities in Nokia Release 1:
VoIP
BE

Based on DiffServ

User Data rate limiting


For traffic between the Terminal and ASN GW At subscriber service flow level

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WiMAX Mobility
Fixed / Nomadic Mobility
The usage is stationary Moving without a connection

Portable / Full Mobility


Handovers
R6 mobility tunnel switching between Base Stations R4 mobility extending a tunnel through the next ASN GW (Inter BS handover) (Inter ASN GW handover)

Network resource optimization


R3 mobility Mobile IP (Inter ASN GW handover) This is not exactly a handover, but network resource optimization after a number of handovers Small networks may not implement R3 handover, they may not have a Home Agent

Idle mode and Paging


Implemented for saving the battery life in mobile devices Paging is needed mainly for incoming VoIP calls (SIP calls)

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Mobility Cases: R6, R4 and R3 Mobility

ASN Gateway (FA)

1 2
R4

R3

HA
ASN Gateway (FA)

CSN Network (NSP-B)

R6

ASN Network (NAP-A)


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WiMAX Overview WiMAX System Architecture

Thank You

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