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BLOOD

INFLAMMATION
DEFENITION:
When tissue injury occurs(caused by bacteria, trauma,chemical,heat etc.)multiple substances are released by injured tissues & cause secondary changes,this entire complex of tissue changes is called inflammation

Inflammation is characterized by: 1) Vasodilation of local blood vessels 2) Increased permeability of capillaries 3) Clotting of fluid in interstitial spaces due to increased amount of fibrinogen 4) Migration of granulocytes & monocytes in tissue 5) Swelling of tissue cells

WALLING OFF EFFECT OF INFLAMMATION:


Early result of inflammation is to wall off area of injury Lymphatics in inflammed area are blocked by fibrinogen clots It delays spread of bacteria Staphylococci release extremely toxic substances,so inflammation develops rapidly

Therefore infection is walled off rapidly & prevented from spreading Streptococci in contrast do not cause such intense local tissue destruction,walling off process is also slow,& have far greater tendency to spread throughout body & cause death

ROLE OF MACROPHAGES & NEUTROPHILS


TISSUE MACROPHAGES-1ST LINE OF DEFENSE: Within minutes after inflammation begins, macrophages start their phagocytic action They become enlarged & fixed macrophages become mobile

NEUTROPHILIC INVASION-2ND LINE OF DEFENCE


Within hour or so,large number of neutrophils begin to invade the inflammed area caused by products from inflammed tissue that initiate: 1) Neutrophils attach to inside surface of capillary endothelium-margination 2) Intercellular attachments b/w capillary endothelium to loosen-diapedesis 3) Other products of inflammation that cause chemotaxis of neutrophils

NEUTROPHILIA:
Within few hours,number of neutrophils increases upto 15,000 to 25,000/microlitre Caused by products of inflammation,entering blood straem,transported to bone marrow

SECOND MACROPHAGE INVASION-3RD LINE OF DEFENCE


Along with invasion of neutrophils,monocytes enter the inflammed area and become mature but require several hours for it In some days to some weeks,macrophages become the predominating cells of inflammed area

Results from stimulation of granulocytic & monocytic progenitor cells of bone marrow Cause of increased production of granulocytes & monocytes is mainly by colony stimulating factors,GM-CSF,G-CSF,M-CSF

INCREASED PRODUCTION OF GRANULOCYTES & MONOCYTES-4th LINE OF DEFENSE

FORMATION OF PUS
When neutrophils & macrophages engulf large number of bacteria & necrotic tissue,all neutrophils & macrophages die A cavity is formed containing necrotic tissue,dead neutrophils,dead macrophages & tissue fluids ,this mixture is called pus After infection is supressed,dead cells & necrotic tissue is autolyzed & end products absorbed by surrounding tissue

LEUKOPENIA
A condition in which bone marrow produces very few WBCs leaving body unprotected against bacteria & other invading agents Human body lives in symbiosis with many bacteria Within 2 days after bone marrow stops producing WBCs,these bacteria invade adjacent tissues Bacteria start forming ulcers & then invade through these ulcers to tissues & blood stream

Death may occur in less than a week in severe leukopenia

CAUSES:
Exposure of body to x-rays,gamma rays Drugs(chloramphenicol, thiouracil) Certain chemicals(containing benzene)

TREATMENT:
Adequate transfusions antibiotics