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Procese tehnologice avansate

Curs 2-
Litografia Optica
Litografia cu fascicol de electroni

Titularul de disciplin:Prof. Dr. Ing. Dan Dasclu
Cerc.st. gr. I, dr. ing. Mircea Dragoman
Dr. Emil Mihai Pavelescu (IMT).
mircea.dragoman@imt.ro,
Tel : 0212690775
Procese tehnologice avansate
In litografia optica , masca este din sticla acoperita selctiv cu Cr cu rolul de absorbi lumina si
care are o grosime de 80-100 nm. In cazul in care este nevoie de dimensiuni ale traseelor de 1
sau mai mici se utilizeaza un pattern generator care scrie configuratia dorita cu ajutorul unui
laser sau fasccol de electroni pe un resist depus peste Cr , dupa crae rezsitul este developat iar
stratul de crom este corodat in zonele care nu formeaza configuratia ceruta.

Substrate
Positive resist
Negative resist
Thin film to be later processed (for example, etched)
Illumination
After the resist development process
Resist exposure
Mask
Procese tehnologice avansate
Procesul litografic poate fi repetat un numar de ori, cu diferiti resisti si
masti,care sunt aliniate.
Alinierea mastilor
Rezolutia
--------------------------
Parametrii principali care caracterizeaza procesul litografic optic
Rezisti: polimeri PMMA((polymethylmethacrylat)
sau DNQ(diazonaph-thoquinone).
---------------------------------
Expunerea rezistilor:
-punct cu punct
-contact-masca in contactat direct cu rezistul-rezolutie buna, dar masca paote fi
partial distrusa
-proximitate-masca plasata la o anumita distanta de rezist-apar limitari lae
rezolutie datorita difractiei optice
Procese tehnologice avansate
Procese tehnologice avansate
Metoda proiectiei-un sistem optic care proiecteaza imaginea masti la o anumita
distanta , oferinta cea mai buna rezolutie:
NA / | = R
unde NA este apertura numerica a sistemului optic si unde |/NA=1,
deci rezolutia R depinde direct de de lunimea de unda.
In cazul utilizarii lampilor cu mercur care are maxime de emisie la 435 nm and
365 nm, putem ajunge la rezolutii de aproximativ 0.8 m
Rezolutii mai joase pana la 130 nm iluminare coerenta-laseri cu eximeri-KrF (
= 248 nm), ArF ( = 193 nm) , F2 ( = 157nm).
Rezolutii mai joase implica schimabrea rezsitilor, a materialelor mastilor , a
solutie de developarecosturi foarte ridicate
Procese tehnologice avansate
Litografie EUV rezolutie 30 nm
Litografia UV =sisteme optice cu NA mici+ lungime de unda mici.
Elementele de reflectie optica ale masti=structuri multistrat de tip Bragg
depuse pe Si (adica n
1
,n
2
,n
1
,.)
Surse de iluminare: plasma, sincrotron ,laser
Tolerante ale mastilor: fractiuni de nm!!!
Viteza mare de scriere : 1000 de configuratii /sec
Litografie cu raze X
Rezolutie mare,dar:
Iluminare : surse puternice de raze X
Mod de lucru: proximitate
Masti scara 1:1
Procese tehnologice avansate
Litografia cu fascicol de electroni
Sursa : sursa de electroni, focalizati si directionati catre un
substrat acoperit cu PMMA
Fascicolul de electroni este
deflectat de un sistem magnetic
pentru a creea in PMMA
configuratia dorita.Procesul de
scriere este foarte lent . Sistemele
moderne folosesc aperturi cu
forme asemanatoare
configuratiilor care trebuie scrise
,care sunt replicate rapid . Un
sistem de proiectie analog cu cel
de la litografia optica este
utilizat.
Procese tehnologice avansate
150nm
IMT
IMT
}
= dE E f E f E T E M
h
e
I )] ( ) ( )[ ( ) (
2
R L
) (
2
2
E MT
h
e
G =
Landauer formula
Transmission probability between the leads

E
FL
E
FR

T
Lead 1 Lead 2
Conductor
Contact Contact
0 ) ( )) ( ( / ) 2 / (
2 2 2
= + c c x x V E x m
the solution of the Schrdinger equation in the ith region is:
Procese tehnologice avansate
is a super-position of forward- and backward-propagating waves
with wavenumber:
) exp( ) exp( ) ( x ik B x ik A x
i i i i i
+ = +
) ( 2
1
i i i
V E m k =

The wavefunction and its x-derivative are continuous inside each layer, while at each
interface x=x
i
between layers i and i+1 the wavefunction and derivative are constant

A
i
A
i+1

B
i

B
i+1

x = x
i

m
i
, V
i
, k
i
m
i+1
, V
i+1
, k
i+1

x
Procese tehnologice avansate
these continuity conditions relate the wavefunction components on each
side of the interface through a transfer matrix:
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +
) exp(
) exp(
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
2
1
) exp(
) exp(
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
i i i
i i i
i i i i
i i i i
i i i
i i i
x ik B
x ik A
v v v v
v v v v
x ik B
x ik A
with
i i i
m k v / =
the electron velocity in the ith layer,
) | | /( ) | | /( | |
2
11 1
2
1 1
2
M v v A v A v T
N N N
= =
The transmission is given by:
11
M
the element of the total transfer matrix with elements
Procese tehnologice avansate
The transmission probability calculation method just described is valid
for either real or imaginary values of the wavenumbers k
i.
The wave-number is imaginary if the electron energy is smaller than the
potential energy value, the electron propagation being forbidden from a
classical point of view
The layer in which the wavenumber is imaginary acts as barrier for
electron propagation, the electron wavefunction decaying exponentially
inside this region, similar to the evanescent propagation of
electromagnetic waves. The transmission probability across such a layer
vanishes unless its width is small enough.
The quantum phenomenon of electron propagation with constant
energy E through thin potential barriers (in general through a
succession of barriers separated by quantum wells, that is, by regions
with real wavenumbers) is called tunneling

x = 0 x = L
V
2

V
1

V
3

k
1
k
3

2

x
V
2 2
i k =
Procese tehnologice avansate
) ( sinh ] / ) )( [( ) (
4
2
2 2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
3 1
3 1
L v v v v v v v
v v
T
+ + + +
=
Transmission through the barrier, where
2 2 2
/ m v =
1
2
>> L ) 2 exp(
2
L T
Procese tehnologice avansate
Tunneling!!!!!!!!!
No tunneling
Negative
resistance
Hi, I am Leo Esaki
the tunneling guy!!!!
The Nobel Prize in
Physics 1973
Procese tehnologice avansate
The Josephson effect in particular results from two superconductors
acting to preserve their long-range order across an insulating barrier. With
a thin enough barrier, the phase of the electron wavefunction in one
superconductor maintains a fixed relationship with the phase of the
wavefunction in another superconductor. This linking up of phase is called
phase coherence. It occurs throughout a single superconductor, and it occurs
between the superconductors in a Josephson junction. Phase coherence - or
long-range order - is the essence of the Josephson effect. "
quantum
mechanics and
the paranormal
10
11
neurons in a
brain=10
11
stars
in the milkey
Way galaxy
Procese tehnologice avansate
When electrons tunnel through a structure that contains two (or more) barriers
separated by quantum well regions, the coherent nature of ballistic electron
propagation generates constructive or destructive interference between the waves
that are partially reflected and transmitted at the interfaces

T
L
T
R

L
k
x
V
barriers
well
u
2
R L
2
R L
R L
cos 4 ) 1 ( R R R R
T T
T
+
=
) exp( ) exp(
21 , R 12 , L 11 , R 11 , L 11
ikL M M ikL M M M + =
11 , L 21 , R 12 , L
arg arg (arg M M M kL + + = u 2 / ) arg
11 , R
M
Procese tehnologice avansate
T is significant even the left and transmissions to the left and right barriers are
small. At the resonance:
1 ) /( 4
2
R L R L res
= + = T T T T T
If
R L
T T =
When the incident electron energy matches a resonant energy value E
r
,,
the electron is not only transmitted with high probability, but also in a shorter
time compared to off-resonance conditions; resonant tunneling devices are
generally ultrafast devices.

E
res

eV
E
F1

E
F2

E
c


I
V
Negative differential
resistance region
RTD
Resonant tunneling
diode
Procese tehnologice avansate
Si/Ge
Carbon nanotube

InP InAs
0.6 eV
40 nm
5nm 15 nm E
c

nanowire
RTD devices
Procese tehnologice avansate
If a quantum well (or another confined structure such as a quantum wire or a
quantum dot) is placed in close proximity to another quantum well (quantum wire
or quantum dot), the electrons in one confined structure can interact or not with
the electrons in the other depending on the height and width of the barrier that
separates the two structures.
In the first case, the quantum wells (quantum wires or quantum dots) are called
coupled and the electron wavefunction extends throughout the entire structure,
while in the second case we deal with a succession of noninteracting quantum
wells (quantum wires or quantum dots), for which the electrons localized in one
confined structure can be transferred in the other only through sequential
tunneling.
Coupling of nanoscale structures is possible since, unlike in wells surrounded by
infinite barriers, in finite barrier regions the electron wavefunction decays
exponentially, and hence the envelope electron wavefunctions in adjacent wells
can overlap if the barrier that separates them is sufficiently thin.
Coupled Nanoscale Structures and Superlattices
Procese tehnologice avansate

QW
2
QW
1

+
sym

+
antisym
E
c

Electron wavefunction splitting into
a symmetric and an antisymmetric
part when two identical quantum
wells are brought in close proximity.
When several identical quantum wells are grown in a periodic structure, with a period L,
and are sufficiently close to one another so that they become coupled, the delocalized
electron wavefunction feels a periodical energy potential with a period L having a
band energy of discrete levels, such that each well contributes one state in each band.
For structures with many periods and sufficiently thin barriers (almost) continuous
permitted and forbidden electron energy bands develop similar to bulk materials, in
which the periodicity is that of the crystalline lattice. This artificial periodic structure,
which is an artificial lattice with a controllable cell, is called a superlattice. The positions
and widths of the electron energy bands are determined by the form of the periodic
potential and therefore can be engineered using advanced semiconductor growth
techniques.
Procese tehnologice avansate

Allowed energy bands
E
c
SUPPERLATTICE
Procese tehnologice avansate
Coulomb Blockade
In tightly confined nanostructures, particularly in quantum dots, the Coulomb
interaction becomes significant and leads to the dependence of electronic states
on the discrete number of particles (electric charges) in the dot.
A phenomenon that illustrates this dependence is the Coulomb blockade, which
consists of the appearance of a gap at the Fermi level in the energy spectrum of
electrons confined in semiconductor quantum dots or small metallic clusters
(generically, islands) that are coupled to metallic leads through tunneling
barriers

E
F

e
2
/C
Island
Tunnel
junctions
E
F

e
2
/C
Island
Island connected to external leads through tunneling junctions.
The opening of a gap in the energy spectrum at the Fermi level due to the additional
Coulomb energy needed by an electron to tunnel in or out of the island can be overcome
by applying a bias V = e/C.
Procese tehnologice avansate
This energy gap, similar to the energy gap in semiconductors, can be viewed
as the extra energy needed, due to Coulomb interaction between electrons in
the island, for an electron to tunnel in or out of the island.
This extra energy, equal to
C e 2 /
2
in metallic islands where C is the capacitance between the island and the
environment corresponds to an energy gap of
C e /
2
T k
B
>>
electron tunneling into a metallic island in the presence of Coulomb blockade
is only possible when a sufficiently large applied bias,
C e V / >
At an electron can tunnel in the island from one lead, the Fermi energy in the
island raises again by e
2
/C and further tunneling is forbidden by the
occurrence of a new energy gap, unless the bias increases to V> 3e/C or the
extra electron in the island tunnels out, into the other lead
Procese tehnologice avansate
The Coulomb blockade is a single-electron phenomenon, which originates in the discrete nature of
electric charge that can be transferred from a conducting island connected to electron reservoirs
through thin barriers; in contrast, resonant tunneling devices rely on the discrete spectrum of
resonant energy levels in a quantum well coupled through thin barriers to electron reservoirs.
The Coulomb blockade allows a precise control of small number of electrons, with important
application in switching devices with low power dissipation and a corresponding increased level of
circuit integration. Single-electron devices based on the Coulomb blockade have generally an
extra control of the charge in the island through an additional gate electrode, which induces
periodic oscillations of the current through the leads as a function of the gate voltage, and some of
them even consist of an array of islands
Si IS BACK!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Procese tehnologice avansate
But, I am working at
room
temperature!!!!!!!!!!!!
Procese tehnologice avansate
Quantization of Thermal Conductance in Ballistic Nanostructures
Amazingly, although electrons and phonons have completely different
properties (the first are fermions, while the latter are bosons), the
phonon thermal conductance is quantized in ballistic phonon
structures, similar to the quantization of conductance in units of
h e G / 2
2
0
=
Thermal dielectric wire conductance
) /(
L R
T T Q =

k


}
=

o
o
e
e e q e q e e t
o
d T Q )] ( ) ( )[ ( ) 2 (
L R
) 0 (
1

temperature
Landauer flux
Procese tehnologice avansate
h T k 3 /
2 2
B
0
t k =
A phonon waveguide
Procese tehnologice avansate