Sunteți pe pagina 1din 35

Chapter 5

Nutrition in Animals

1
Content
• Structure of Human Digestive
System
- Alimentary Canal
- Associated Organs
• Chemical Digestion ~ Enzymes
• Absorption and Assimilation

2
Learning Objectives
(a) Describe the functions of main regions of the alimentary
canal and the associated organs: mouth, salivary glands,
oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, pancreas, gall bladder,
liver, ileum, colon, rectum, anus, in relation to ingestion,
digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion of food, as
appropriate
(b) Describe peristalsis in terms of rhythmic wave-like
contractions of the muscles to mix and propel the contents
of the alimentary canal
(c) Describe digestion in the alimentary canal, the functions of
a typical amylase, protease and lipase, listing the substrate
and end-products
(d) Describe the structure of a villus and its role, including the
role of capillaries and lacteals in absorption

3
(e) State the function of the hepatic portal vein as the
route taken by most of the food absorbed from the
small intestine

(f) State the role of the liver in


• Carbohydrate metabolism
• Fat metabolism
• Breakdown of red blood cells
• Metabolism of amino acids and the formation of
urea
• Breakdown of alcohol, including the effects of
excessive alcohol consumption

4
Recap on HUMAN ALIMENTARY CANAL

5
AL IM ENTARY CAN AL
MOUTH
SALIVARY
GLANDS
OESOPHAGUS
(GULLET)

STOMACH
DUODENUM
COLON

ILEUM

RECTUM
ANUS 6
THE
ASSOC IA TED
ORG ANS

LIVER
GALL
PANCREAS
BLADDER

7
Cross-section of the gut

The walls of the alimentary canal


are made up
of muscles, mucosa and serosa.

Refer to pg 94 8
Peristalsis
• Peristalsis is the wave-like muscle
contraction in the walls of the
alimentary canal.
• It helps to mix and propels the food
in the alimentary canal.
• It occurs in one direction only

9
Refer to pg 97

10
Question
• Assume you just had your lunch. If you
were to stand upside down, will the food
travel in opposite direction?

11
Food in the alimentary canal go through 5
stag es of nut ri tion .

12
INGESTION Taking in food

Breakdown of complex
DIGESTION food substances to
soluble food substances

Digested food diffuses


ABSORPTION
into bloodstream

Transport and use of


ASSIMILATION absorbed food by body cells

EGESTION Removal of undigested food

13
Functions Refer to pg 95

The mouth

14
Functions
The mouth
 Takes in food.  Tongue rolls the food into
This process is called spherical masses (boli)
ingestion.

 has teeth to cut food into


smaller pieces. Salivary
(PHYSICAL DIGESTION) amylase
starch maltose
 Has salivary glands that
produce saliva which
contains an enzyme (salivary
amylase) to digest starch to
maltose.

15
Swallowing (not in syllabus)

16
Functions
The oesophagus

Pushes food by
peristalsis to the
stomach.

17
Structure of the Stomach Wall

Copyright © 2001 Benjamin Cummings, an imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
18
Functions
The stomach
Has glands in the walls that
secrete gastric juice.
This liquid contains hydrochloric acid and enzymes to
digest proteins.

The acid changes the inactive enzymes to active enzymes.

inactive enzymes active enzymes


hydrochloric acid
pepsinogen pepsin
hydrochloric acid
prorennin rennin

19
Functions Refer to pg
107
The stomach

 These active enzymes digest proteins to polypeptides.

pepsin
proteins polypeptides

rennin
soluble milk proteins insoluble milk proteins
(casinogen) (casein)
pepsin

polypeptides
20
pH of hydrochloric acid = 2
Why didn’t the acid corrode the stomach?

21
Small Intestine Refer to pg 93

duodenum
jejunum Small
intestine
ileum

22
Structure
The small intestine

Small intestine consists of duodenum, jejunum and ileum.

Duodenum: U-shaped

Ileum: Coiled

23
Functions
The small intestine
U-shaped duodenum
 Receives bile and pancreatic juice containing
enzymes to digest food.
Both are alkaline.
 Has glands in intestinal walls to secrete intestinal
juice.
This liquid is alkaline and contains enzymes to digest
food.
Coiled ileum
Absorbs digested food into blood.
This process is called absorption.

24
Small intestine
In pancreatic juice,

Pancreatic amylase
starch maltose

trypsin
proteins Polypeptides/peptones

Pancreatic lipase
fats Fatty acids + glycerol

25
Small intestine Refer to pg
107
In intestinal juice,
intestinal maltase
maltose glucose

erepsin
Polypeptides/ Amino acids
peptones
intestinal lipase
fats Fatty acids + glycerol
lactase
lactose glucose + galactose

sucrase
sucrose glucose + fructose
enterokinase
trypsinogen trypsin

26
Why are some enzymes produced in
inactive forms?

27
What features enable the small
intestine to carry out its role of absorbing
nutrients effectively?

28
Villi of Small intestine Refer to pg
100

29
The Wall of the Small Intestine

Copyright © 2001 Benjamin Cummings, an imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
30
What features enable the small
intestine to carry out its role of absorbing
nutrients effectively?

 inner surface of small intestine has many folds


 Folds are covered with many finger-like projections
called villi
 Epithelial cells on each villus have finger-like
projections on their cell membranes called microvilli.

31
Cross-section of a villus
The lacteal transports
fats whereas the blood
capillaries transport epithelium
simple sugars and Network of
amino acids. blood capillaries
Lacteal
(lymphatic
Capillary)

32
Large Intestine Refer to pg 93

Large colon
intestine caecum

33
Functions
The large intestine

Colon
Absorbs water and mineral salts from undigested
matter into bloodstream.

34
Functions
The rectum and the anus

Rectum (a short muscular tube)


Stores faeces which are mainly undigested food,
mucus, dead cells, bile pigments and germs.

Anus
To expel faeces.
This process is called egestion.

35