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# Chapter 6 - 1

Stress and strain: What are they and why are
Elastic behavior: When loads are small, how much
deformation occurs? What materials deform least?
Plastic behavior: At what point does permanent
deformation occur? What materials are most
resistant to permanent deformation?
Toughness and ductility: What are they and how
do we measure them?
Chapter 6:
Mechanical Properties
Chapter 6 - 2
Elastic means reversible!
Elastic Deformation
F
o
bonds
stretch
initial
F
o
Linear-
elastic
Non-Linear-
elastic
Chapter 6 - 3
Plastic means permanent!
Plastic Deformation (Metals)
F
o
linear
elastic
linear
elastic
o
plastic
p lanes
still
sheared
F
o
elastic + plastic
bonds
stretch
& planes
shear
o
plastic
Chapter 6 - 4
Stress has units:
N/m
2
or lb
f
/in2
Engineering Stress
Shear stress, t:
Area, A
F
t
F
t
F
s
F
F
F
s
t =
F
s
A
o
Tensile stress, o:
original area
Area, A
F
t
F
t
o =
F
t
A
o
2
f
2
m
N
or
in
lb
=
Chapter 6 - 5
Simple tension: cable
Note: t = M/A
c
R here.
Common States of Stress
A
o
= cross sectional
F F
o
o =
F
A
o
t =
F
s
A
o o
M
M
A
o
2R
F
s
A
c
Torsion (a form of shear): drive shaft
Ski lift (photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)
Chapter 6 - 6
(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM
o
o =
F
A
Simple compression:
Note: compressive
structure member
(o < 0 here).
(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (1)
A
o
Balanced Rock, Arches
National Park
Chapter 6 - 7
Bi-axial tension: Hydrostatic compression:
Pressurized tank
o < 0
h
(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)
(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)
OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (2)
Fish under water
o
z
> 0
o
u
> 0
Chapter 6 - 8
Tensile strain: Lateral strain:
Shear strain:
Strain is always
dimensionless.
Engineering Strain
u
90
90 - u
y
Ax
u = Ax/y = tan
c =
o
L
o
o
c
L
=
L
w
o
Adapted from Fig. 6.1 (a) and (c), Callister 7e.
o /2
o
L
/2
L
o
w
o
Chapter 6 - 9
Stress-Strain Testing
Typical tensile test
machine
Adapted from Fig. 6.3, Callister 7e. (Fig. 6.3 is taken from H.W.
Hayden, W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff, The Structure and Properties of
Materials, Vol. III, Mechanical Behavior, p. 2, John Wiley and Sons,
New York, 1965.)
specimen extensometer
Typical tensile
specimen
Fig. 6.2,
Callister 7e.
gauge
length
Chapter 6 - 10
Linear Elastic Properties
Modulus of Elasticity, E:
(also known as Young's modulus)
Hooke's Law:
o = E c
o
Linear-
elastic
E
c
F
F
simple
tension
test
Chapter 6 - 11
Poisson's ratio, v
Poisson's ratio, v:
Units:
E: [GPa] or [psi]
v: dimensionless
v > 0.50 density increases
v < 0.50 density decreases
(voids form)
c
L

c
-
v
c
v =
L
c
metals: v ~ 0.33
ceramics: v ~ 0.25
polymers: v ~ 0.40
Chapter 6 - 12
Mechanical Properties
Slope of stress strain plot (which is
proportional to the elastic modulus) depends
on bond strength of metal
Callister 7e.
Chapter 6 - 13
Elastic Shear
modulus, G:
t
G

t = G
Other Elastic Properties
simple
torsion
test
M
M
Special relations for isotropic materials:
2(1 + v)
E
G =
3(1 2v)
E
K
=
Elastic Bulk
modulus, K:
pressure
test: Init.
vol =V
o
.
Vol chg.
= AV
P
P P
P = - K
A
V
V
o
P
A
V
K
V
o
Chapter 6 - 14
Metals
Alloys
Graphite
Ceramics
Semicond
Polymers
Composites
/fibers
E(GPa)
Based on data in Table B2,
Callister 7e.
Composite data based on
reinforced epoxy with 60 vol%
of aligned
carbon (CFRE),
aramid (AFRE), or
glass (GFRE)
fibers.
Youngs Moduli: Comparison
10
9
Pa
0.2
8
0.6
1
Magnesium,
Aluminum
Platinum
Silver, Gold
Tantalum
Zinc, Ti
Steel, Ni
Molybdenum
G raphite
Si crystal
Glass - soda
Concrete
Si nitride
Al oxide
PC
Wood( grain)
AFRE( fibers) *
CFRE *
GFRE*
Glass fibers only
Carbon fibers only
A ramid fibers only
Epoxy only
0.4
0.8
2
4
6
10
2 0
4 0
6 0
8 0
10 0
2 00
6 00
8 00
10 00
1200
4 00
Tin
Cu alloys
Tungsten
<100>
<111>
Si carbide
Diamond
PTF E
HDP E
LDPE
PP
Polyester
PS
PET
C FRE( fibers) *
G FRE( fibers)*
G FRE(|| fibers)*
A FRE(|| fibers)*
C FRE(|| fibers)*
Chapter 6 - 15
Simple tension:
o =
FL
o
E A
o
o
L
= v
Fw
o
E A
o
contribute to deflection.
Larger elastic moduli minimize elastic deflection.
Useful Linear Elastic Relationships
F
A
o
o /2
o
L
/2
L
o

w
o
Simple torsion:
o =
2 ML
o
t r
o
4
G
M = moment
o = angle of twist
2r
o

L
o

Chapter 6 - 16
(at lower temperatures, i.e. T < T
melt
/3)
Plastic (Permanent) Deformation
Simple tension test:
engineering stress, o
engineering strain, c
Elastic+Plastic
at larger stress
permanent (plastic)
c
p

plastic strain
Elastic
initially
Callister 7e.
Chapter 6 - 17
Stress at which noticeable plastic deformation has
occurred.
when c
p
= 0.002
Yield Strength, o
y
o
y
= yield strength

Note: for 2 inch sample
c = 0.002 = Az/z
Az = 0.004 in
Callister 7e.
tensile stress, o
engineering strain, c
o
y

c
p
= 0.002
Chapter 6 - 18
Room T values
Based on data in Table B4,
Callister 7e.
a = annealed
hr = hot rolled
ag = aged
cd = cold drawn
cw = cold worked
qt = quenched & tempered
Yield Strength : Comparison
Graphite/
Ceramics/
Semicond
Metals/
Alloys
Composites/
fibers
Polymers
Y
i
e
l
d

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
,

o
y

(
M
P
a
)

PVC
H
a
r
d

t
o

m
e
a
s
u
r
e

,

s
i
n
c
e

i
n

t
e
n
s
i
o
n
,

f
r
a
c
t
u
r
e

u
s
u
a
l
l
y

o
c
c
u
r
s

b
e
f
o
r
e

y
i
e
l
d
.

Nylon 6,6
LDPE
70
20
40
60
50
100
10
30
2 00
3 00
4 00
5 00
6 00
7 00
10 00
2 0 00
Tin (pure)
Al (6061)
a
Al (6061)
ag
Cu (71500)
hr
Ta (pure)
Ti (pure)
a
Steel (1020)
hr
Steel (1020)
cd
Steel (4140)
a
Steel (4140)
qt
Ti (5Al-2.5Sn)
a
W (pure)
Mo (pure)
Cu (71500)
cw
H
a
r
d

t
o

m
e
a
s
u
r
e
,

i
n

c
e
r
a
m
i
c

m
a
t
r
i
x

a
n
d

e
p
o
x
y

m
a
t
r
i
x

c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e
s
,

s
i
n
c
e

i
n

t
e
n
s
i
o
n
,

f
r
a
c
t
u
r
e

u
s
u
a
l
l
y

o
c
c
u
r
s

b
e
f
o
r
e

y
i
e
l
d
.

H DPE
PP
humid
dry
PC
PET

Chapter 6 - 19
Tensile Strength, TS
Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.
Polymers: occurs when polymer backbone chains are
Callister 7e.
o
y

strain
Typical response of a metal
F = fracture or
ultimate
strength

Neck acts
as stress
concentrator

e
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

TS

s
t
r
e
s
s

engineering strain
Maximum stress on engineering stress-strain curve.
Chapter 6 - 20
Tensile Strength : Comparison
Si crystal
<100>
Graphite/
Ceramics/
Semicond
Metals/
Alloys
Composites/
fibers
Polymers
T
e
n
s
i
l
e

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
,

T
S

(
M
P
a
)

PVC
Nylon 6,6
10
100
200
300
1000
Al (6061)
a
Al (6061)
ag
Cu (71500)
hr
Ta (pure)
Ti (pure)
a
Steel (1020)
Steel (4140)
a
Steel (4140)
qt
Ti (5Al-2.5Sn)
a
W (pure)
Cu (71500)
cw
L DPE
PP
PC PET
20
30
40
2000
3000
5000
Graphite
Al oxide
Concrete
Diamond
Glass-soda
Si nitride
H DPE
wood ( fiber)
wood(|| fiber)
1
GFRE (|| fiber)
GFRE ( fiber)
C FRE (|| fiber)
C FRE ( fiber)
A FRE (|| fiber)
A FRE( fiber)
E-glass fib
C fibers
Aramid fib
Room Temp. values
Based on data in Table B4,
Callister 7e.
a = annealed
hr = hot rolled
ag = aged
cd = cold drawn
cw = cold worked
qt = quenched & tempered
AFRE, GFRE, & CFRE =
aramid, glass, & carbon
fiber-reinforced epoxy
composites, with 60 vol%
fibers.
Chapter 6 - 21
Plastic tensile strain at failure:
Callister 7e.
Ductility
Another ductility measure:
100 x
A
A A
RA %
o
f o
-
=
x 100
L
L L
EL %
o
o f

=
Engineering tensile strain, c
E ngineering
tensile
stress, o
smaller %EL
larger %EL
L
f

A
o

A
f

L
o

Chapter 6 - 22
Energy to break a unit volume of material
Approximate by the area under the stress-strain
curve.
Toughness
Brittle fracture: elastic energy
Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy
very small toughness
(unreinforced polymers)
Engineering tensile strain, c
E ngineering
tensile
stress, o
small toughness (ceramics)
large toughness (metals)
Callister 7e.
Chapter 6 - 23
Resilience, U
r

Ability of a material to store energy
Energy stored best in elastic region
If we assume a linear
stress-strain curve this
simplifies to
Callister 7e.
y y r
2
1
U
c o ~
}
c
c o =
y
d U
r
0
Chapter 6 - 24
Elastic Strain Recovery
Callister 7e.
Chapter 6 - 25
Hardness
Resistance to permanently indenting the surface.
Large hardness means:
--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in
compression.
--better wear properties.
e.g.,
10 mm sphere
apply known force
measure size
of indent after
d
D
Smaller indents
mean larger
hardness.
increasing hardness
most
plastics
brasses
Al alloys
easy to machine
steels file hard
cutting
tools
nitrided
steels diamond
Chapter 6 - 26
Hardness: Measurement
Rockwell
No major sample damage
Each scale runs to 130 but only useful in range
20-100.
Major load 60 (A), 100 (B) & 150 (C) kg
A = diamond, B = 1/16 in. ball, C = diamond

HB = Brinell Hardness
TS (psia) = 500 x HB
TS (MPa) = 3.45 x HB
Chapter 6 - 27
Hardness: Measurement
Table 6.5
Chapter 6 - 28
True Stress & Strain
Note: S.A. changes when sample stretched

True stress

True Strain
i T
A F = o
( )
o i T
ln = c
( )
( ) c + = c
c + o = o
1 ln
1
T
T
Callister 7e.
Chapter 6 - 29
Hardening
Curve fit to the stress-strain response:

o
T
= K c
T
( )
n
true stress (F/A)
true strain: ln(L/L
o
)
hardening exponent:
n = 0.15 (some steels)
to n = 0.5 (some coppers)
An increase in o
y
due to plastic deformation.
o
c
large hardening
small hardening
o
y

0
o
y

1
Chapter 6 - 30
Variability in Material Properties
Elastic modulus is material property
Critical properties depend largely on sample flaws
(defects, etc.). Large sample to sample variability.
Statistics

Mean

Standard Deviation
( )
2
1
2
1 (
(

E
=
n
x x
s
i
n
n
x
x
n
n
E
=
where n is the number of data points
Chapter 6 - 31
Design uncertainties mean we do not push the limit.
Factor of safety, N
N
y
working
o
= o
Often N is
between
1.2 and 4
Example: Calculate a diameter, d, to ensure that yield does
not occur in the 1045 carbon steel rod below. Use a
factor of safety of 5.
Design or Safety Factors
( ) 4
000 220
2
/ d
N ,
t
5
N
y
working
o
= o
1045 plain
carbon steel:
o
y
= 310 MPa
TS = 565 MPa
F = 220,000N
d
L
o
d = 0.067 m = 6.7 cm
Chapter 6 - 32
Stress and strain: These are size-independent
measures of load and displacement, respectively.
Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often
shows a linear relation between stress and strain.
To minimize deformation, select a material with a
large elastic modulus (E or G).
Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit
volume of material.
Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.
Summary
Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation
behavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive)
uniaxial stress reaches o
y
.
Chapter 6 - 33
Core Problems:
Self-help Problems:
ANNOUNCEMENTS