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Job Design

Slides by Jill Nicholson

Overview
What is Job Design? Elements of Job Design Five Core Job Characteristics Approaches to Job Design Tools of Job Design Current Trends Summary

What is Job Design?


The organization of activities to create the optimum level of performance.

Elements of Job Design


Task Analysis Worker Analysis

Environmental Analysis

Task Analysis
Determines
What tasks will be done How each task will be done How the tasks fit together to form a job

Worker Analysis
Determines
Capabilities the worker must possess

Responsibilities the worker will have

Environmental Analysis
Used to analyze physical environment including:
Location Lighting Temperature Noise Ventilation

Five Core Job Characteristics


Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Job Feedback

Approaches to Job Design


Scientific Management Behavioral Approach
Job Enlargement Job Enrichment Job Rotation

Social Technical System

Scientific Management
Advantages of specialization
Simplifies training High Productivity Low wage costs

Disadvantages of specialization
Difficult to motivate quality Worker dissatisfaction

Job Enlargement
Advantages
Increase scope

Disadvantages
No challenge

Job Enrichment
Advantages
Lower Staff turnover

Less absenteeism

Job Rotation
Advantages
Reduces Boredom Broadens experiences Gives broad understanding

Job Rotation continued


Disadvantages
Increased training costs Reduced productivity Demotivates specialists

Social Technical System


Job should be reasonably demanding Employee should be able to continue learning on the job Employees need recognition in work place Employees need to relate what they produce to their social life

Tools of Job Design


Process Flowchart Motion Study Work measurement
Stopwatch time study Standard elemental times Work Sampling Learning Curve

Process Flow Chart Exercise


Divide into groups of 3 or 4
Make a flow chart for the following process

Process Flow Chart Exercise


QuickCopy Store does copying jobs for walk-in customers. When a customer comes in with a copy job, a desk operator fills out a work order (name, number of copies, quality of paper, and so on) and places it in a box. An operator subsequently picks up the job, makes the copies, and returns the completed job to the cashier, where the job transaction is completed. (Russell and Taylor, Operations Management)

Answer
Process Description Desk Operator fills out work order Work order placed in "waiting job" box Job picked up by operator and read Job carried to appropriate copy machine Operator waits for machine to vacate Operator loads paper Operator sets machine Operator performs and completes job Operator inspects job for irregularities Job filed alphabetically in completed work shelves Job waits for pickup Job moved by cashier for pickup Casheir completes transaction Cashier packages job (bag, wrap, or box) Process Symbols

Operation Transportation Inspection Delay Storage

Current Trends in Job Design


Flextime
Compressed Workweek Job Sharing Telecommuting

Summary
Job design can help your firm find the most efficient way to operate Job design can improve the quality of work life and satisfaction for your employees. This leads to a smoother running, more profitable business

Bibliography
Russell, Roberta S. and Bernard W. Taylor. Operations Management. Prentice Hall, Inc., 2000.
Chapter 6-Job Design. Internet http://www.pittstate.edu/mgmkt/chapt er6spol.html. 3/7/2001 Job Design and Motivation. Internet http://www.shef.ac.uk/uni/companies/ msmu/jobdesignmotivation.htm.

Bibliography continued
Job Design and Work Arrangements. Internet.

http://mars.wnec.edu/~achelte/gr ad7outline.htm.