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Paper 3 physic spm

19. Diagram 4.1 and Diagram 4.2 show an identical bulbs connected to the conductor wires of identical length but of different thickness. When the power supply is switched on, the bulbs lighted with different brightness.

(a) State one suitable inference Resistance// brightness of bulb depends on the diameter/thickness of the conductor wire (b) State one hypothesis that could investigated. When the diameter/thickness increase, the resistance decrease

(c) With the use of apparatus such as a dry cells, constantan wire and other apparatus, describe one experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in 4(b). (i) To investigate the relationship between the diameter /thickness of the conductor wire and resistance (ii) Manipulated : diameter / thickness Responding : resistance / voltage Constant : length of conductor (iii) Dry cells, insulated constantan wire, connector wire, ammeter, voltmeter, rheostat , switch, meter rule


(v) 1. A 20 cm length of constantan wire of diameter of 0.1 mm is connected to a circuit as shown in diagram above. 2. Adjust the rheostat and until the ammeter reading is I = (0.2A). 3. Measure the corresponding reading on the voltmeter, V 4. Calculate the resistance of conductor using formula ; R = V/I 5. Repeat step 1 to 4 with the diameter of constantan wire , 0.2 mm , 0.3 mm, 0.4mm and 0.5mm. (vi) Diameter, mm 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 (vii) Voltmeter, V R = V/I

a) The depth of water affects the position of the image of the coin // The position of the image depends on the depth of the water
b) The more the depth of the water is, the more the position/ apparent depth of the image. c) i) To investigate the relationship between real depth and apparent depth/ position of the coin ii) Manipulated Variable : The depth of water Responding variable : The position of the image / The apparent depth constant variable : the type of liquid / The type of beaker iii) Tall beaker, water, pins, set of retort stand and metre rule


Set up the apparatus as above// A pin is placed at the base of a beaker. Aother pin is clamped to the retort clamp outside the beaker

v) State the method to control the manipulated & responding variable

1.fill a beaker with water to a depth of 10cm 2.move the pin outside the beaker to obtain the apparent position of the pin in beaker 3.record the position of the pin from the surface of the water to the pin using ruler. 4.repeat step 1 to 3 by increase the depth of the water : 12 cm, 14cm, 16 cm, and 18 cm vi)

Depth of water, d/cm 10 12 14

Apparent depth, d/cm

16 18 vii) Plot a graph of apparent depth against the depth of the water

Sin r directly proportional to sin i

Sin 26.7 = 0.45 Sin r = 0.3 r = 17.5

Ray box must be arranged exactly on the Angle of Incidence line .

increase as c decrease


The liquid is constantly stirred throughout the experiment so that the liquid is heated evenly


Mass of liquid

Temperature of liquid

Specific heat capacity of the liquid / Type of liquid

increase with 1/m increase

The velocity of the sea waves changes when the wave approach an area which is shallow

The velocity of the refracted waves smaller than the velocity of the incident waves.

To study the relationship between the velocity of refracted waves with velocity of incident waves ii) manipulated variable : depth of water responding variable : wavelength constant variable : frequency of the source of waves iii) power source, ripple tank, a transparent glass plate, stroboscope, a piece of white paper, metre ruler, wooden bar fitted with the vibrator motor


v) 1. The transparent glass plate is placed at the centre of the ripple tank so that the water on top of its surface is the region of shallow water. 2. The image of the plane waves in the region of shallow water is observed through a stroboscope that freezes the propagation of the waves 3. Using metre ruler, the wavelength of the wave for the deep and shallow region is measured. 4. The experiment is repeated by increasing the depth of water.

vi) Wave pattern for shallow water region

Wave patter for deep water region

vi) The wavelength of water of the deep water region is longer than the wavelength of water of the shallow water region.

Inertia balance

The period of oscillations is in a linear proportion to the number of metal rods.

T = 2.7s Number of metal rods = 2 The mass of object = 2 x 0.05 = 0.1 kg


The balance of table is horizontally to avoid gravitational pull Each experiment is repeated twice to obtain the average value

Mass of the trolley

Acceleration of the trolley


No of trolley


Acceleration, a

2 3

2 3

0.5 0.33

60 36

(a is directly proportional to 1/m) a is inversely proportional to m

0.4 V

0.9 V


1.7 V

2.2 V

The length of constantan wire

The resistance of the wire / The potential difference across the wire The diameter of the wire / The type of wire / The value of current

Diagram 1.2 Diagram 1.3 Diagram 1.4 Diagram 1.5 Diagram 1.6

= = = = =

0.8 1.8 2.6 3.4 4.4

The resistance of the wire, R, is directly proportional to the length of the wire, l

Aim: To investigate the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction, and to determine the refraction index of glass.

Aim: To investigate the relationship between the object distance (u), image distance (v), and focal length (f) of a lens