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4.

3 THEORETICALGENETICS
To be able to define the key terms of theoretical genetics To describe inheritance patterns using inheritance diagrams To be able to explain sex linkage

DEFINITIONS
Genotype: the alleles of an organism Phenotype: The characteristics of an organism Dominant allele: the allele that gets expressed in heterozygous condition Recessive allele; the allele that has an effect on the phenotype when present in the homozygous state. Codominant alleles: pairs of alleles that are both expressed when present Locus: specific position of a gene in a chromosome Homozygous; having two copies of the same allele. Heterozygous: having two different alleles of a gene Carrier: a person with one recessive faulty allele for a genetic disorder Test cross: testing a suspected heterozygote by crossing with the homozygous recessive

MONOHYBRID CROSSES

Complete Dominance

Incomplete Dominance
Codominance

#1 - COMPLETE DOMINANCE
P: F1: RR rr Genotype Phenotype Rr red F1 Cross: Rr Rr Punnett Square: R r R r Type of Genotype heterozygous

RR Rr

Rr rr

F2 Genotypic Ratio: 1 RR : 2 Rr : 1 rr F2 Phenotypic Ratio: 3 red: 1 white

F2:

Genotype RR Rr Rr rr

Phenotype red red red white

Type of Genotype homozygous heterozygous heterozygous homozygous

#4 - INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE
P: F1: RR rr Genotype Phenotype Rr pink F1 Cross: Rr Rr Punnett Square: R r R r Type of Genotype heterozygous

RR Rr

Rr rr

F2 Genotypic Ratio: 1 RR : 2 Rr : 1 rr F2 Phenotypic Ratio: 1 red: 2 pink : 1 white

F2:

Genotype RR Rr Rr rr

Phenotype red pink pink white

Type of Genotype homozygous heterozygous heterozygous homozygous

#7 - CODOMINANCE
P: F1: RR WW Genotype Phenotype Type of Genotype RW red & white heterozygous F1 Cross: RW RW Punnett Square: R W R W

RR

RW F2 Genotypic Ratio:

RW WW

1 RR : 2 RW : 1 WW F2 Phenotypic Ratio:
1 red : 2 red & white : 1 white

F2:

Genotype RR RW RW WW

Phenotype red red & white red & white white

Type of Genotype homozygous heterozygous heterozygous homozygous

ABO BLOOD TYPING

ABO BLOOD TYPING


% of Blood Types in U.S. Caucasions
B+ 9% A6% O+ 38% B2%

A+ 34%

AB- AB+ 1% 3%

O7%

ABO BLOOD TYPING

ABO BLOOD TYPING

RECIPIENT

A
D O N O R

AB Y

A B AB O

Y Y

Y Y

#15 - BLOOD TYPING


P: I Ai I Bi Punnett Square: IB IA i I AI B I Bi i I Ai ii

F1:

Genotype IAIB I Ai I Bi ii

Phenotype AB A B O

ADDITIONAL CROSSES

Sex Determination

Sex Linkage
ABO Blood Typing

#12 - SEX LINKAGE- HAEMOPHILIA


P: XHY XHXh Punnett Square: XH Xh

XH XHXH XHXh Y XHY XhY

F1:

Genotype XHXH XHXh XHY XhY

Phenotype normal carrier normal hemophilia

Sex F F M M

Type of Genotype homozygous heterozygous hemizygous hemizygous

#11 - SEX DETERMINATION


P: XY XX X X Y X

XX XY

XX XY

Ratio: 1 XX : 1 XY

DIHYBRID CROSSES

Complete Dominance

#8 - COMPLETE DOMINANCE
P: F1: yyrr YYRR Genotype Phenotype Type of Genotype YyRr yellow/round heterozygous YR Yr yR yr F1 Cross: YyRr YyRr Punnett Square: YR YYRR YYRr YyRR YyRr Yr
YYRr YYrr YyRr Yyrr yyRr yyrr

yR YyRR YyRr yyRR yr YyRr Phenotype yellow/round yellow/wrinkled green/round green/wrinkled


Yyrr yyRr

F2:

Genotype 9 Y_R_ 3 Y_rr 3 yyR_ 1 yyrr

PEDIGREES

PEDIGREES

Normal

Affected

Carrier

PEDIGREES
Example: You are a normal female (homozygous). Both of your parents are normal. Your younger brother is normal and your older brother has hemophilia.

XHXh

XHY

XhY

XHY XHXH You!

#18 - PEDIGREES
XCXC XcY

XCY

XCXc

XCY

XCXC

XCXc

XcY You!

XCY