=
=
1
0
) ( ) exp( ) , (
N
i
i i b
j a t h t t o u t
For small scale channel modeling Power delay
profile of channel is found by taking the spatial
average Ih
b
(t; )I
2
The received power delay profile in a local area:
Average over the local area.
k gain relates Tx power in probing pulse p(t)
to the total power Rx in a multipath delay profile.
2
( ) ( ; )
b
P k h t t t ~
SSF behaves differently for 2 signals with different BWs
in the identical multipath channel.
Consider a pulsed, transmitted signal of the form
The signal p(t) is a repetitive baseband pulse train with
very narrow pulse width and repetition period ,
with
Max measured excess delay
max
.
5.2.1 Relationship between Bandwidth and Received Power
{ } ) 2 exp( ) ( Re ) ( t f j t p t x
c
t =
p(t)
t
bb
T
REP
T
real response
imaginary response
bb
T REP
T
max
t >>
REP
T
Now, let
P(t) is zero outside the interval.
Low pass channel output is r(t) convolving
p(t) with h
b
(t,)
bb
T t p / 2 ) (
max
t =
bb
T t s s 0
=
(
=
=
1
0
max
1
0
2
) exp(
) ( ) exp(
2
1
) (
N
i
i
bb
bb
i i
N
i
i i i
T
t rect
T
j a
t p j a t r
t
t
u
t u
Received power at time t
0
Measure I r(t
0
) I
2
.
I r(t
0
) I
2
Found by summing up the multipath
powers Energy received over time duration of
multipath delay divided by
max
For wide band signal
For wide band signal
The average smallscale received powerWide Band
Signal
E
a,
(.) Ensemble average over all possible values
of a
i
&
i
in a local area.
overbar sample average over local measurement
area.
From last 2 Eqn If a Tx signal is able to resolve
multipaths, Then Avg small scale Rx power Sum
of Avg power Rx in each MP.
Instead of a pulse, CW signal (narrowband signal )
is transmitted in to the same channel
Complex envelope c(t) =2
Instantaneous complex envelope of Rx signal is
the phasor sum
Instantaneous power is
As Rx is moved over local area changes in r(t)
Rx signal vary based on a
i
&
i
a
i
vary little &
i
vary greatly due to changes in
propagation distance Large fluctuations of r(t)
as Rx is moved over smaller distances.
r(t) is phasor sum of individual MP
Instantaneous phases of MP components
Cause large fluctuations.
Avg Rx power over a local area
r
ij
Path amplitude correlation coefficient
Overbar Time Avg for CW measurements
If MP phases are identical [cos(
i

j
)=0] OR
If path amplitudes are uncorrelated [r
ij
=0 ]i.e.,
r
ij
=0
Avg power of CW signal= Avg Rx power for a
wideband signal in a smallscale region.
5.3.SmallScale Multipath Measurements
Channel Sounding Techniques
Direct RF pulse system
Spread Spectrum Sliding Correlator
Frequency Domain Channel Sounding
(i) Direct RF Pulse System
Tx repetitive pulse of width Tbb s
Rx WB pass filter (BW =2/ Tbb Hz).
amplified detected envelope detector,
displayed and stored on a high speed
oscilloscope.
Advantage: Complex offthe shelf
equipment
Disadvantage:
Interference and noise
First arriving signal trigger the oscilloscope
First arriving signal is blocked severe fading
occurs
Envelope detector phases of the individual MP
are not received
Use coherent detector
Spread Spectrum Sliding Correlator Channel
Sounding
Carrier signal "spread" over a large BW
Mix with PN sequence
Chip duration Tc, and a chip rate
Rc equal to 1/Tc, Hz
The power spectrum envelope of the Tx spread
spectrum signal is given by as
At Rx:
Spread spectrum signal filtered, despread III
ar
(identical) PN
sequence generator.
Tx chip clock > Rx chip clock mixing the chip sequences in this
fashion implements Sliding correlator
When PN code of faster chip clock catches up with slower chip clock
(2 chip sequences are aligned )Max Correlation
When not correlated the sequence will spread and narrow band
filter will reject almost all the incoming signal power
where Tbb = 1/Rbb, is the period of the baseband information.
If incoming signal is correlated Rx sequence
"despread
envelope detected Displayed on an
oscilloscope.
Different incoming multipath have different time
delays they correlate at different times
Channel impulse response convolved with the
pulse shape Displayed on the oscilloscope.
Time resolution of Multipath components is
(2 multipath signals can be resolved as long as they are 2Tc seconds apart)
Sliding correlation process gives equivalent time measurements
every time the 2 sequences are maximally correlated
Time between maximal correlations (T):
Slide factor = [transmitter chip clock rate] /[The
difference between the transmitter and receiver
chip clock rates]
Processing gain realized using NB filter BW=2()
Equivalent time measurement Relative times
of MP components as they are displayed on the
oscilloscope
Propagation delays are actually expanded in time
sliding correlator time dilation
The PN sequence period is
Advantage :
Reject pass band noise improve the coverage
range
Tx & Rx PN sequence synchronization is
eliminated by sliding correlator
Required Tx powers < Direct pulse system
Due to inherent Processing gain.
Disadvantage:
Measurements are not made in real time
Time required for power delay profile
measurement
It uses Non coherent detector phases of MP
can not be measured.
Frequency domain channel sounding
Measure the channel impulse response in the
frequency domain.
A vector network analyzer controls a
synthesized frequency sweeper.
Sparameter test set monitor the frequency
response of the channel.
The sweeper scans a particular frequency band
(centered on the carrier) by stepping through
discrete frequencies.
Sparameter test set transmits a known signal
level at port 1 and monitors the received signal
level at port 2.
Limitation:
Calibration b/w Tx & Rx
NonrealTime nature of measurement.
Time varying channel Freq response will change
Erroneous impulse response
Solution Faster sweep time accomplished
reducing the number of frequency steps
sacrifices time resolution and excess delay
5.4.Parameters of Mobile Multipath Channels
Multipath channel parametrs
Mean excess delay
rms delay spread
Excess Delay Spread
Determined from power delay profile.
mean excess delayis the first moment of power
delay profile
rms delay spreadis the square root of second
central moment of power delay profile
The maximum excess delay (X dB) of the power
delay profile Time delay during which MP
energy falls to X dB below the maximum.
0
delay excess t t =
X
signal arriving first for the delay :
dB X within is component multipath a at which delay maximum :
0
t
t
X
5.4.2.Coherence Bandwidth
rms delay spread and coherence bandwidth are
inversely proportional to each other.
Range of frequencies over which the channel can
be considered flat*channel passes equal gain
and linear phases]
Range of frequencies over which two freq
components have a strong potential for
amplitude correlation.
If the coherence BW Bc is defined as the BW over
which the frequency correlation function is
above 0.9, then
If the coherence BW Bc is defined as the BW over
which the frequency correlation function is
above 0.5, then
>
Doppler Spread and Coherence Time
Delay spread and coherence bandwidth
time dispersive nature of the channel
time varying nature of the channel Doppler
Spread and Coherence Time
Doppler Spread B
D
:
Measure of the spectral broadening caused by the time
rate of change of the mobile radio channel
Range of frequencies over which the received Doppler
spectrum is essentially nonzero. (in the range f
c
f
d
to
f
c
+f
d
)
Amount of spectral broadening to fd v &
If the baseband signal bandwidth is much greater than
B
D
, the effects of Doppler Spread are negligible.
Slow Fading Channel
Coherence Time T
c
: the time domain dual of
Doppler Spread
Time duration over which channel impulse
response invariant.
Time duration over which 2 Rx signals have
strong potential for amplitude correlation
Tc = 1/ fm
where: f
m
is the maximum Doppler Shift= v/
If time over which the time correlation function is
above 0.5 Tc = 9/ 16f
m
Time duration during which Rayleigh fading fluctuate
widely Tc=1/f
m
In general Geometric mean of above 2 Eqns
m m
f f
T
423 . 0
16
9
2
0
= =
t
Types of smallscale Fading
Fading Effects due to MP time delay Spread
Flat fading
Const Gain & linear phase response over BW > BW of Tx
Signal
The spectral characteristics of the transmitted signal are
preserved at the receiver
Fluctuations in Gain of channel Strength of Rx signal
changes.
Flat fading channel is also called amplitude
varying channel.
Also called narrow band channel: bandwidth of
the applied signal is narrow as compared to the
channel bandwidth.
A signal undergoes flat fading if
and
C S
B B <<
t
o >>
S
T
period) (symbol bandwidth reciprocal :
S
T
signal ed transmitt the of bandwidth :
S
B
bandwidth coherent :
C
B
spread delay rms :
t
o
Frequency selective fading
Channel possesses a constantgain and linear phase
response over a BW that is smaller than the
bandwidth of transmitted signal.
signal spectrum
channel response
received signal spectrum
f
f
f
) ( f S
C
B
Due to time dispersion of the transmitted symbols
within the channel.
Induces inter symbol interference
Frequency selective fading channels are much
more difficult to model than flat fading channels.
Since each MP has to be modeled.
For frequency selective fading
and
C S
B B >
Flat fading if
Frequency selective Fading if
t
o 10 >>
S
T
t
o 10 <
S
T
Fading effects due to Doppler Spread:
Fast Fading: The channel impulse response changes
rapidly within the symbol duration.
Cause frequency dispersion due to Doppler spreading.
A signal undergoes fast fading if
and
C S
T T >
D S
B B <
Slow Fading:
h(t) changes at a rate much slower than the
transmitted baseband signal s(t).
A signal undergoes slow fading if
and
C S
T T <<
D S
B B >>
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