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Data Communications & Networking

An Introduction

NETWORK MODELS
Internet model (TCP/IP) ISO-OSI Reference Model

Layered structure example


Organization A Organization B

CEO-A
PA-A R&D Clerk-A MailBox-A Mail-man-A

CEO-B
PA-B

R&D Clerk-B
MailBox-B Mail-man-B Postal department Network

Observations from the above example


communication process is divided into number of sub functions. The distribution of process into more than one function is brought about in order to enhance the performance at each level. The function of the level above or above a certain level is transparent at each level Modification can be performed at each level improving or modifying its performance much easily. The above example is a 7 Layer Model

Peers
Each level in organization A is complemented by a corresponding level in organization B. These level which perform the complement function are called peers. Peers may be defined more generally as those parties functioning at the same level appearing to communicate each other

Service access points


The CEO-A accesses the PA-A and dictates the letter, this boundary between CEO-A Layer & PA-A layer is called SAP. The SAP is almost two way as in case of PA-B of organization B handling over the letter to CEO-B

Hierarchy:according to the analysis there are 6 different activities at the sender side and 6 at the receiver side. For completing the task the activities are performed in the order ie in hierarchical manner. Services:Each function or layer uses services of the layers immediately below it.

Stack of layers
The layers which form the model are also called stack of layers or layer stack. This stack of layers is also called a protocol stack, since each layer is clearly defined as what services it will provide. The rules and formats for interaction with it are well defined

Layering Advantages
Complex problems are broken into an ordered sequence of simpler problems. Hence solving of complex problem becomes easier The modularization of layers represents the simpler problem may be modified and implemented without affecting the layer above and below it Layering approach provides a broad common functionality which enables a wide range of implementers to interface to various layers in standard manner

Internet Model (TCP/IP protocol suit)


The layered protocol stack that dominates data communication and networking today is the five layer Internet model

Application
Transport Network Data link Physical

TCP/IP
Protocol Stack

Key Points
1. Protocol architecture is the layered structure of H/W and S/W that supports the exchange of data between systems and supports distributed applications such as e.mail & file transfer.

2. At each layer of protocol architecture one or more protocols are implemented in communicating systems. Each protocol provides a set of rules for the exchange of data between systems.
3. Within a single machine, each layer calls upon the services of the layer just below it

Peer to Peer Process


A IN1 IN2 B

Application Transport
4-3 I/f 5-4 I/f

Peer to -Peer Peer to -Peer Network


3-2 I/f 2-1 I/f

Application Transport
4-3 I/f

5-4 I/f

Network
3-2 I/f 2-1 I/f

Network
3-2 I/f 2-1 I/f

Network
3-2 I/f 2-1 I/f

Data link
Physical

Data link
Physical

Data link
Physical

Data link Physical

Appln Layer Transport Layer

SMTP SCTP

FTP

SNMP TCP

DNS

HTTP UDP

IGMP

ICMP

Network Layer

IPv4
ARP RARP

DLL Physical Layer

802.x Wired/Wireless

Interfaces between layers


The passing of the data and network information down through the layers of the sending and receiving device is made possible by an interface between each pair of adjacent layers

Each interface defines what information and services a layer must provide for the layer above it
A well defined interfaces and layer functions provide modularity to a network

An exchange using the internet model


A B

L5 Data L4 Data

H5 H4

L5 Data L4 Data

H5 H4

L3 Data
T2 L2 Data

H3
H2 T2

L3 Data
L2 Data

H3
H2

10101010110100101010

10101010110100101010

Physical Layer

Physical Layer is responsible for transmitting individual bits from one node to the next

Functions of Physical Layer


Physical characteristics of i/fs & media Representation of bits Data rates (transmission rate) Synchronization of bits

Multiplexing
Switching Transmission media

Data Link Layer


The Data link layer is used for hop to hop delivery of frames
Protocols available 802.x

Data link Layer

Data Link Layer is responsible for delivery of frames from one node to the next

Link1

R2
LAN

R1 R3
LAN Link2 Link3

Data Link Layer

Node to Node delivery

Functions of Data Link Layer


Physical addressing Framing Flow control Error Control Access Control

23

45
Drop Line
Tap

71
Drop Line Tap

Drop Line

Cable end

Tap

Cable end

T2

Data

23

71

Network Layer
The Network layer is used for the src to destn delivery of a packets possibly across multiple ntks. Ntk layer ensures that each packet gets from its point of origin to its final dstn
Only one Protocols is available IP

Host to Host Path Link1

R2
LAN

R1 R3
LAN Link2 Link3

R1

R2

D Network Data link Physical

Network
Data link

Network
Data link

Network
Data link

Physical

Physical

Physical

Routing using the TCP/IP Layers

Functions of Network Layer


Logical addressing Routing Internetworking Packetizing Fragmenting

Network Layer is responsible for delivery of packets from source to the destination

Transport Layer
The transport layer is responsible for process to process delivery of the entire massage
Transports appln layer messages between the client & server sides of the appln Two Protocols are available UDP

TCP

Transport Layer is responsible for sending messages (segments) from one process to another

Application layer
Application layer enables the user, whether Human or Software, to access the network. It provides user interfaces and support for services such as e-mail, remote file access and transfer, access to the world wide web and so on.

Functions of the layer


Mail services. File transfer and access Remote login Accessing world wide web

Messages Segment Packets


Frames Bits

Application
Transport Network Data link Physical

Provides user access to ntk resources Ensures process to process delivery Sends pkts from src to dst Provides hop-to-hop delivery T/fs bits over the medium

Addresses in TCP/IP

Application
Transport Network Data link Physical

Specfic addr bits-goa.ac.in Port addr-16 22 Logical addr 32 10.2.1.83

Physical add- 48 00-1A-4B-39-4D-5D

Physical addresses

As we will see most local-area networks use a 48bit (6-byte) physical address written as 12 hexadecimal digits; every byte (2 hexadecimal digits) is separated by a colon, as shown below:

A 6-byte (12 hexadecimal digits) physical address.

07:01:02:01:2C:4B

IP addresses

Port addresses

Note
The physical addresses will change from hop to hop, but the logical addresses usually remain the same.

As we will see a port address is a 16-bit address represented by one decimal number as shown.
A 16-bit port address represented as one single number.

753

Note
The physical addresses change from hop to hop, but the logical and port addresses usually remain the same.

Physical Layer

Position of the physical layer

Services

SIGNALS
To be transmitted, data must be transformed to electromagnetic signals.

Analog and Digital Analog and Digital Data Analog and Digital Signals
Periodic and Aperiodic Signals

Signals can be analog or digital. Analog signals can have an infinite number of values in a range; digital signals can have only a limited number of values.

Simple signal

Analog Signals

Composite signal

Sine Wave
Characteristics

1) Amplitude

Characteristics Cont
Frequency/Period

Frequency and period are inverses of each other.


Frequency is the rate of change with respect to time. Change in a short span of time means high frequency. Change over a long span of time means low frequency.

Characteristics Cont
Phase

Phase describes the position of the waveform relative to time zero.

Example
A sine wave is offset one-sixth of a cycle with respect to time zero. What is its phase in degrees and radians?

Solution
One complete cycle is 360 degrees. Therefore, 1/6 cycle is (1/6) 360 = 60 degrees = 60 x 2p /360 rad = 1.046 rad

Sine wave Plots with different Characteristics

Composite Signals
According to Fourier analysis, any composite signal can be represented as a combination of simple sine waves with different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes.

Frequency Spectrum
The description of a signal using frequency domain and containing all its components is called Frequency spectrum of that signal

Bandwidth
Signal Bandwidth Medium Bandwidth