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Otto, Diesel Engine Cycles


Submitted to Mr. RAM KUMAR


Otto Engine

Few things to remember

Invented by Nikolas Augustus Otto in the 1870s. Also know as the four-stroke engine because of its four-stroke cycle. Internal combustion engine. Most commonly used for automotive industrial purposes. Used for cars, truck, generators, planes, and more. Requires a sparkplug in order to begin combustion

Four-stroke Cycle
Intake Stroke
Compression Stroke Power Stroke

Exhaust Stroke

Intake Stroke

Compression Stroke

Power Stroke

Exhaust Stroke

Four-stroke cycle
Intake Cycle 2. Compression Cycle 3. Power Cycle 4. Exhaust Cycle

Otto Cycle Diagram

There are a few differences between the diesel engine and the gasoline engine.

A gasoline engine intakes a mixture of gas and air, compresses it and ignites the mixture with a spark. A diesel engine takes in just air, compresses it and then injects fuel into the compressed air. So the diesel engine does not need a spark plug to operate. The heat of the compressed air lights the fuel spontaneously.

A gasoline engine compresses at a ratio of 8:1 to 12:1, while a diesel engine compresses at a ratio of 14:1 to as high as 25:1. The higher the compression ratio of the diesel engine leads to better efficiency and more power.

Gasoline engines generally use either carburetion, in which the air and fuel is mixed long before the air enters the cylinder, or port fuel injection, in which the fuel is injected just prior to the intake stroke (outside the cylinder). Diesel engines use direct fuel injection -- the diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder.

Diesel fuel is heavier and oilier than regular gasoline and it smells different. Diesel gas evaporates much more slowly than gasoline because it is heavier. Its chemical compound is C14H30 as compared to gasoline which is C9H20. It takes less refining to create diesel fuel which is why it is usually cheaper than gasoline. It has a higher energy density than gasoline. One gallon of diesel fuel contains 155 million joules of energy compared to 132 million with gasoline. The fact that diesel fuel has a higher energy density and diesel engines run more efficiently than gasoline engines creates better mileage when traveling.

The main difference between a gasoline engine and a diesel engine is the spark plug. The injector has to be able to withstand the temperature and pressure inside the cylinder and still deliver fuel in a fine mist. The injection process is also different from gasoline engines. In gasoline engines fuel is injected into the cylinder during Intake stroke and then compressed. The fuel and air mixture limits the compression Ratio of the engine. If the air is compressed to much then the fuel spontaneously Ignites and creates knocking. A diesel compresses air only, so the compression Ratio can be much higher. The diesel cycle includes 4 stages which are the intake Of air, compression of air, fuel injection, and then the exhaust stage. The higher the compression ratio the more horsepower from the engine. It is the heat of the compressed air that ignites the fuel.

Rotary Engines

Rotation and Orbit

Each tip of the rotor follows a trochoidal path

around the housing

Note: The shaft rotates three times for each Rotation of the orbit

Four-Stroke Cycle (Revisited)

Intake Stroke

Compression Stroke
Power Stroke Exhaust Stroke Same as Otto/Diesel Engine

Rotary Cycle
No cylinders or pistons

Separate chambers of


Intake Stroke

Compression Stroke

Power Stroke

Exhaust Stroke

3 Cycles occur simultaneously (120 degrees out of

phase) Drives rotor around shaft