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Job Analysis
A Prelude to Recruitment and Placement

Instructor presentation questions: docwin@tampabay.rr.com

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Chapter Outline
I. The Nature of Job Analysis
Job Analysis Defined Uses of Job Analysis Information Steps in Job Analysis

II.

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information


Introduction The Interview Questionnaire Observation Participant Diary/Logs Using Multiple Sources of Information Class Exercise

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Chapter Outline
(to be covered next class)
III. Writing Job Descriptions
Job Identification Job Summary Relationships Responsibilities and Duties Standards of Performance Working Conditions and Physical Environment

IV.

Writing Job Specifics


Specifications for Trained Versus Untrained Personnel Job Specifications Based on Judgment Job Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis

V.

Job Analysis in a Jobless World


From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs Why Managers are De-jobbing Their Companies

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Part 1: The Nature of Job Analysis


Job analysis defined Uses of job analysis information Steps in job analysis

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Job Analysis What is it and how is it used?


The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.
Check this A+ site out and list some of the purposes for which job analysis is used.

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What Information do I Collect?


Work activities Human behaviors Machines, tools, equipment and work aids Performance standards Job context (Environment) Human requirements

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Work activities
Cleaning Selling Teaching Painting How, why and when the activities are performed

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Human behaviors
Sensing Communicating Deciding Writing

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Machines, Tools, Equipment, Work Aids


Equipment used Materials processed Knowledge dealt with or applied Services rendered

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Performance Standards
Information about the jobs performance standards in terms of quality or quantity). These standards will be used when appraising employees.

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Job Context (Environment)


Physical working conditions Work schedule Organizational context Social context (the number of people with whom the employee would normally interact)

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Human Requirements
Job-related knowledge and skills

Education Training Work experience

Personal attributes

Aptitudes Physical characteristics Personality Interests

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Uses of Job Analysis Information


Job Analysis

Job Description and Job Specification

Recruiting and Selection Decisions


Figure 3-1

Performance Appraisal

Job Evaluation Wage and Salary Decisions (Compensation)

Training Requirements

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Uses of Job Analysis Information


Recruitment and selection Compensation Performance Appraisal Training Discovering unassigned duties

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Recruitment and Selection


Job analysis provides information about what the job entails and the human characteristics required to perform these activities. This information aids management to decide and select the most suitable person to hire.

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Compensation
Job analysis includes details about the jobs required skills & educational level, work environment, degree of responsibility ..etc.

These are the basis upon which the job value & its appropriate compensation are set. Relative job worth

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Performance Appraisal
Job analysis includes information about the jobs performance standards Performance appraisal compared employees actual performance against these standards.

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Training
The job description should show the activities and skillsand therefore the trainingthat the job requires.

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Discovering Unassigned Duties

Job analysis can also help reveal unassigned duties.

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Steps in Job Analysis


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Decide how to use the information Review relevant background information Select representative positions Conduct the analysis Verify with the worker and supervisor Develop a job description and job specification (two tangible outputs of job analysis)

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Part 2: Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information


The interview Questionnaire Observation Participant diary/logs Multiple sources of information

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Collecting Job Analysis Information


Joint effort between HR, the worker and the supervisor

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Employees may be Concerned Because of


Resistance to change Possible changes to job duties Changes to pay Lack of trust of consequences

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Widely Used: The Interview


Individual interviews with each employee Group interviews with groups of employees who have the same job Supervisor interviews with one or more supervisors who know the job.

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Sample Interview Questions


What is the job being performed? What are the major duties of your position? What exactly do you do? What physical locations do you work in? What are the education, experience, skill, and [where applicable] certification and licensing requirements? In what activities do you participate? What are the jobs responsibilities and duties?

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Sample Interview Questions (continued)

What are the basic accountabilities or performance standards that typify your work? What are your responsibilities? What are the environmental and working conditions involved? What are the jobs physical demands? The emotional and mental demands? What are the health and safety conditions? Are you exposed to any hazards or unusual working conditions?

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Interview Guidelines
The job analyst and supervisor should identify the workers who know the job best and would be objective Establish a rapport with the interviewee Follow a structured guide or checklist Ask a worker to list duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence Review and verify data

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Interview Guidelines
Pro: 1. Simple, quick and easy 2. May generate information that never appears on written documents 3. Provides an opportunity to explain the need of the analysis 4. Employee may be able to vent frustration

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Interview Guidelines
Con: 1. Expensive and time consuming 2. Distortion Thus should be used with other methods (multiple sources)

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How to Conduct a Questionnaire Session


Having employees fill out questionnaires to describe their job-related duties & responsibilities is a good way to obtain job analysis information.

First, you have to decide on how structured or open-ended the questionnaire will be.

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How to Conduct a Questionnaire Session


In structured questionnaires, employees are given an inventory of specific duties to select from. Example of open ended questionnaires could be describe the major duties of your job The ideal questionnaire would be a combination of both structured questions and open-ended ones.

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PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY POSITION DESCRIPTION * * PLEASE READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING THIS FORM * *

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( ) New ( ) Revised

SECTION 1. POSITION INFORMATION a. Class Title: b. Class No.: c. Effective Date: d. Position No.: e. Working Title: f. Work Unit: g. Agency No.: h. Employee Name: i. Work Location (City-County): _________________________________________________________________________________ j. Position: ( ) Permanent ( ) Seasonal ( ) Limited Duration ( ) Academic Year ( ) Full Time ( ) Part Time ( ) Intermittent ( ) Job Share _________________________________________________________________________________ k. FLSA: ( ) Exempt ( ) Non-Exempt l. Eligible for Overtime: ( ) Yes ( ) No _________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 2. PROGRAM/POSITION INFORMATION a. Describe the program in which this job exists. Include program purpose, who's affected, size, and scope. Include relationship to agency mission.

b. Describe the purpose of this position, and how it functions within this program, by completing this statement: The purpose of this job/position is to . . .

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SECTION 3. DESCRIPTION OF DUTIES

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List major duties. Note percentage of time duties are performed. If this is an existing position, mark "N" for new duties or "R" for revised duties. % of Time N/R DUTIES _________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 4. WORKING CONDITIONS Describe special working conditions, if any, that are a regular part of this job. Include frequency of exposure to these conditions. ________________________________________________________________________________

SECTION 5. GUIDELINES
a. List any established guidelines used to do this job, such as state or federal laws or regulations, policies, manuals or desk procedures.

b. How are these guidelines used to perform the job?

SECTION 6. WORK CONTACTS


With whom outside of co-workers in this work unit must this position regularly come in contact? Who Contacted How Purpose How Often?

SECTION 7. JOB-RELATED DECISION MAKING Describe the kinds of decisions likely to be made by this position. Indicate affect of these decisions where possible.

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SECTION 8. REVIEW OF WORK

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Who reviews the work of this position? (List classification title and position number.) How? How often? Purpose of the review? SECTION 9. SUPERVISORY DUTIES TO BE COMPLETED ONLY FOR POSITIONS IN MANAGEMENT SERVICE

a. How many employees are directly supervised by this position? _______ _______
b. Which of the following supervisory/management activities does this job perform? ( ) Plans Work ( ) Assigns Work ( ) Approves Work ( ) Responds to Grievances ( ) Disciplines/Rewards

Through Subordinate Supervisors?

( ) Hires/Fires (or Effectively Recommends) ( ) Prepares and Signs Performance Appraisals

SECTION 10. ADDITIONAL JOB-RELATED INFORMATION Any other comments that would add to an understanding of this position: SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: List any special mandatory recruiting requirements for this position: BUDGET AUTHORITY: If this position has authority to commit agency operating money, indicate in what area, how much (biennially) and type of funds: _________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 11. ORGANIZATIONAL CHART Attach a current organizational chart. See instructions for detail to be included on the chart. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Employee Signature Date Supervisor Signature Date _________________________________________________ Appointing Authority Signature Date

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Questionnaire
Pro: Is a quick, cheap & efficient way to obtain information from a large number of employees Con: developing the questionnaire can be expensive, time consuming and requires professionals. May miss out on interpretations

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Observation
Observation may be combined with interviewing Take complete notes Talk with the person being observed explain what is happening and why Ask questions Main problem is Reactivity

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Diaries and Logs


Time-consuming Remembering what was done earlier Can use dictating machines and pagers Includes critical & infrequent tasks (complete picture)

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Using Multiple Sources


To avoid in accuracies, some organizations use several data collection methods to perform job analysis. For example, collect data from different types of respondents: employee, supervisor..etc. For example use questionnaires or observation first followed by interviews

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Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information - Comparison


1. 2. 3. 4. Interviews Questionnaire Observation Diary/Logs

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Part 3: Writing Job Descriptions


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Job Identification Job Summary Relationships Responsibilities and Duties Standards of Performance Working Conditions and Physical Environment

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Job Identification
Title Date Approvals Supervisors title Salary Grade level

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Job Summary
General nature Major functions or activities Includes general statements

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Relationships Statement for Human Resource Director


Vice President Employee Relations Human Resource Director Department Secretary Test Administrator Human Resource Clerk Labor Relations Manager

Works with all department managers and executive management

Works with employment agencies, recruiters, union reps, state and federal agencies, vendors

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Responsibilities and Duties


Examples

Establishes marketing goals to ensure share of market Maintaining balanced and controlled inventories Purchasing authority Discipline Interviewing and hiring

Defines the limits of job holders authority

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Standards of Performance Example


Duty: Meeting Daily Production Schedule

Work group produces no fewer than 426 units per working day Next workstation rejects no more than an average of 2% of units Weekly overtime does not exceed an average of 5%

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Part 4: Writing Job Specifications


What human traits and experience are required to do the job well?

Specifications for trained versus untrained personnel Specifications based on judgment

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Job Related Behaviors


Industriousness Thoroughness Schedule flexibility Attendance Off-task behavior Unruliness Theft Drug misuse

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Use a Job Analysis Questionnaire


JOB ANALYSIS
Job Title: Description of the Job:

Tasks

Tools Used

Standards for Performance

Conditions for Performance

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Part 5: Job Analysis in a Jobless World


Job is generally defined as a set of closely related activities carried out for pay. Today, this has changed. There will always be enormous amounts of work to do, but it is not going to be contained in the familiar envelopes we call jobs.

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Part 5: Specialized to Enlarged Jobs


Experts like Adam Smith and Fredrick Taylor wrote glowingly of the positive effects of work specialization. By the mid-1900s writers wrote of the dehumanizing effects of pigeonholing workers into highly repetitive and specialized jobs. Many proposed: Job Enlargement, Rotation and Enrichment

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Part 5: Specialized to Enlarged Jobs


Job Enlargement: assigning workers additional same-level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform. (instead of just one lousy job, I
have two)

Job Rotation: systematically moving workers from one job to another to enhance work team performance &/or broaden his experience & identify strong & weak points. Job Enrichment: redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to feel responsible, growth & recognition (by planning and controlling his work)

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Specialized to Enlarged Jobs


Job Enlargement = same-level activities Job Rotation = moving from one job to another Job Enrichment = redesigning to experience more responsibility, achievement, growth and recognition

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Why are managers Dejobbing their companies


Dejobbing is broadening the responsibilities of the companys jobs and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to whats on their job description.

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Trends and De-Jobbing

Rapid product and technological changes

Competition

Global Changes

Demographics

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Why are managers Dejobbing their companies


Flatter Organizations Work Teams Boundaryless Organizations (virtual, network, modular) Reengineering

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Traditional Organization Chart


President Chief Executive Officer Executive Assistant

Vice President Sales

Vice President Marketing

Vice President Human Resources

Vice President Operations

Vice President Finance

Director East Region

Director West Region

Director Public Relations

Director Compensation and Benefits

Director Training and Development

Director Manufacturing

Driector Audit and Accounting

Manager Manager Manager Manager

Manager Manager Manager

Manager Manager

Clerk Administrator

Manager

Logistics Plant Manager

Tax Finance Accounting

Tech. Writer Plant Manager Sr. Trainer Manager Sr. Trainer Sales Sales Sales Sales Sales Clerk Accounting Accounting

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Flatter Organizations

Executive and Operations Team

Technical Development Team

Manufacturing Engineering Team

People Systems Team

Finance Team

Purchasing and Suppllier Quality Team

Sales, Service and Marketing Team

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Flat and Boundaryless Organizations


General Electric

WAL

MART IKEA

Procter & Gamble

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Competency-based Job Analysis


We reviewed the nature of job analysis, how it is used, some legal issues and three methods of collecting job analysis information. We practiced writing job descriptions and looked at descriptions in detail. We reviewed the six steps involved in job analysis and reviewed traditional and contemporary methods of organizing. WHEW!