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2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Job Analysis
A Prelude to Recruitment and Placement

Instructor presentation questions:


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Chapter Outline
I. The Nature of Job Analysis
Job Analysis Defined Uses of Job Analysis Information Steps in Job Analysis


Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information

Introduction The Interview Questionnaire Observation Participant Diary/Logs Using Multiple Sources of Information Class Exercise


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Chapter Outline
(to be covered next class)
III. Writing Job Descriptions
Job Identification Job Summary Relationships Responsibilities and Duties Standards of Performance Working Conditions and Physical Environment


Writing Job Specifics

Specifications for Trained Versus Untrained Personnel Job Specifications Based on Judgment Job Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis


Job Analysis in a Jobless World

From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs Why Managers are De-jobbing Their Companies


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Part 1: The Nature of Job Analysis

Job analysis defined Uses of job analysis information Steps in job analysis


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Job Analysis What is it and how is it used?

The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.
Check this A+ site out and list some of the purposes for which job analysis is used.


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

What Information do I Collect?

Work activities Human behaviors Machines, tools, equipment and work aids Performance standards Job context (Environment) Human requirements


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Work activities
Cleaning Selling Teaching Painting How, why and when the activities are performed


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Human behaviors
Sensing Communicating Deciding Writing


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Machines, Tools, Equipment, Work Aids

Equipment used Materials processed Knowledge dealt with or applied Services rendered


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Performance Standards
Information about the jobs performance standards in terms of quality or quantity). These standards will be used when appraising employees.


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Job Context (Environment)

Physical working conditions Work schedule Organizational context Social context (the number of people with whom the employee would normally interact)


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Human Requirements
Job-related knowledge and skills

Education Training Work experience

Personal attributes

Aptitudes Physical characteristics Personality Interests


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Uses of Job Analysis Information

Job Analysis

Job Description and Job Specification

Recruiting and Selection Decisions

Figure 3-1

Performance Appraisal

Job Evaluation Wage and Salary Decisions (Compensation)

Training Requirements


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Uses of Job Analysis Information

Recruitment and selection Compensation Performance Appraisal Training Discovering unassigned duties


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Recruitment and Selection

Job analysis provides information about what the job entails and the human characteristics required to perform these activities. This information aids management to decide and select the most suitable person to hire.


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Job analysis includes details about the jobs required skills & educational level, work environment, degree of responsibility ..etc.

These are the basis upon which the job value & its appropriate compensation are set. Relative job worth


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Performance Appraisal
Job analysis includes information about the jobs performance standards Performance appraisal compared employees actual performance against these standards.


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

The job description should show the activities and skillsand therefore the trainingthat the job requires.


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Discovering Unassigned Duties

Job analysis can also help reveal unassigned duties.


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Steps in Job Analysis

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Decide how to use the information Review relevant background information Select representative positions Conduct the analysis Verify with the worker and supervisor Develop a job description and job specification (two tangible outputs of job analysis)


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Part 2: Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information

The interview Questionnaire Observation Participant diary/logs Multiple sources of information


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Collecting Job Analysis Information

Joint effort between HR, the worker and the supervisor


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Employees may be Concerned Because of

Resistance to change Possible changes to job duties Changes to pay Lack of trust of consequences


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Widely Used: The Interview

Individual interviews with each employee Group interviews with groups of employees who have the same job Supervisor interviews with one or more supervisors who know the job.


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Sample Interview Questions

What is the job being performed? What are the major duties of your position? What exactly do you do? What physical locations do you work in? What are the education, experience, skill, and [where applicable] certification and licensing requirements? In what activities do you participate? What are the jobs responsibilities and duties?


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Sample Interview Questions (continued)

What are the basic accountabilities or performance standards that typify your work? What are your responsibilities? What are the environmental and working conditions involved? What are the jobs physical demands? The emotional and mental demands? What are the health and safety conditions? Are you exposed to any hazards or unusual working conditions?


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Interview Guidelines
The job analyst and supervisor should identify the workers who know the job best and would be objective Establish a rapport with the interviewee Follow a structured guide or checklist Ask a worker to list duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence Review and verify data


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Interview Guidelines
Pro: 1. Simple, quick and easy 2. May generate information that never appears on written documents 3. Provides an opportunity to explain the need of the analysis 4. Employee may be able to vent frustration


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Interview Guidelines
Con: 1. Expensive and time consuming 2. Distortion Thus should be used with other methods (multiple sources)


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

How to Conduct a Questionnaire Session

Having employees fill out questionnaires to describe their job-related duties & responsibilities is a good way to obtain job analysis information.

First, you have to decide on how structured or open-ended the questionnaire will be.


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

How to Conduct a Questionnaire Session

In structured questionnaires, employees are given an inventory of specific duties to select from. Example of open ended questionnaires could be describe the major duties of your job The ideal questionnaire would be a combination of both structured questions and open-ended ones.


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

( ) New ( ) Revised

SECTION 1. POSITION INFORMATION a. Class Title: b. Class No.: c. Effective Date: d. Position No.: e. Working Title: f. Work Unit: g. Agency No.: h. Employee Name: i. Work Location (City-County): _________________________________________________________________________________ j. Position: ( ) Permanent ( ) Seasonal ( ) Limited Duration ( ) Academic Year ( ) Full Time ( ) Part Time ( ) Intermittent ( ) Job Share _________________________________________________________________________________ k. FLSA: ( ) Exempt ( ) Non-Exempt l. Eligible for Overtime: ( ) Yes ( ) No _________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 2. PROGRAM/POSITION INFORMATION a. Describe the program in which this job exists. Include program purpose, who's affected, size, and scope. Include relationship to agency mission.

b. Describe the purpose of this position, and how it functions within this program, by completing this statement: The purpose of this job/position is to . . .


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

List major duties. Note percentage of time duties are performed. If this is an existing position, mark "N" for new duties or "R" for revised duties. % of Time N/R DUTIES _________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 4. WORKING CONDITIONS Describe special working conditions, if any, that are a regular part of this job. Include frequency of exposure to these conditions. ________________________________________________________________________________

a. List any established guidelines used to do this job, such as state or federal laws or regulations, policies, manuals or desk procedures.

b. How are these guidelines used to perform the job?


With whom outside of co-workers in this work unit must this position regularly come in contact? Who Contacted How Purpose How Often?

SECTION 7. JOB-RELATED DECISION MAKING Describe the kinds of decisions likely to be made by this position. Indicate affect of these decisions where possible.


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Who reviews the work of this position? (List classification title and position number.) How? How often? Purpose of the review? SECTION 9. SUPERVISORY DUTIES TO BE COMPLETED ONLY FOR POSITIONS IN MANAGEMENT SERVICE

a. How many employees are directly supervised by this position? _______ _______
b. Which of the following supervisory/management activities does this job perform? ( ) Plans Work ( ) Assigns Work ( ) Approves Work ( ) Responds to Grievances ( ) Disciplines/Rewards

Through Subordinate Supervisors?

( ) Hires/Fires (or Effectively Recommends) ( ) Prepares and Signs Performance Appraisals

SECTION 10. ADDITIONAL JOB-RELATED INFORMATION Any other comments that would add to an understanding of this position: SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: List any special mandatory recruiting requirements for this position: BUDGET AUTHORITY: If this position has authority to commit agency operating money, indicate in what area, how much (biennially) and type of funds: _________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 11. ORGANIZATIONAL CHART Attach a current organizational chart. See instructions for detail to be included on the chart. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Employee Signature Date Supervisor Signature Date _________________________________________________ Appointing Authority Signature Date


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Pro: Is a quick, cheap & efficient way to obtain information from a large number of employees Con: developing the questionnaire can be expensive, time consuming and requires professionals. May miss out on interpretations


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Observation may be combined with interviewing Take complete notes Talk with the person being observed explain what is happening and why Ask questions Main problem is Reactivity


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Diaries and Logs

Time-consuming Remembering what was done earlier Can use dictating machines and pagers Includes critical & infrequent tasks (complete picture)


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Using Multiple Sources

To avoid in accuracies, some organizations use several data collection methods to perform job analysis. For example, collect data from different types of respondents: employee, supervisor..etc. For example use questionnaires or observation first followed by interviews


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information - Comparison

1. 2. 3. 4. Interviews Questionnaire Observation Diary/Logs


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Part 3: Writing Job Descriptions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Job Identification Job Summary Relationships Responsibilities and Duties Standards of Performance Working Conditions and Physical Environment


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Job Identification
Title Date Approvals Supervisors title Salary Grade level


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Job Summary
General nature Major functions or activities Includes general statements


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Relationships Statement for Human Resource Director

Vice President Employee Relations Human Resource Director Department Secretary Test Administrator Human Resource Clerk Labor Relations Manager

Works with all department managers and executive management

Works with employment agencies, recruiters, union reps, state and federal agencies, vendors


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Responsibilities and Duties


Establishes marketing goals to ensure share of market Maintaining balanced and controlled inventories Purchasing authority Discipline Interviewing and hiring

Defines the limits of job holders authority


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Standards of Performance Example

Duty: Meeting Daily Production Schedule

Work group produces no fewer than 426 units per working day Next workstation rejects no more than an average of 2% of units Weekly overtime does not exceed an average of 5%


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Part 4: Writing Job Specifications

What human traits and experience are required to do the job well?

Specifications for trained versus untrained personnel Specifications based on judgment


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Job Related Behaviors

Industriousness Thoroughness Schedule flexibility Attendance Off-task behavior Unruliness Theft Drug misuse


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Use a Job Analysis Questionnaire

Job Title: Description of the Job:


Tools Used

Standards for Performance

Conditions for Performance


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Part 5: Job Analysis in a Jobless World

Job is generally defined as a set of closely related activities carried out for pay. Today, this has changed. There will always be enormous amounts of work to do, but it is not going to be contained in the familiar envelopes we call jobs.


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Part 5: Specialized to Enlarged Jobs

Experts like Adam Smith and Fredrick Taylor wrote glowingly of the positive effects of work specialization. By the mid-1900s writers wrote of the dehumanizing effects of pigeonholing workers into highly repetitive and specialized jobs. Many proposed: Job Enlargement, Rotation and Enrichment


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Part 5: Specialized to Enlarged Jobs

Job Enlargement: assigning workers additional same-level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform. (instead of just one lousy job, I
have two)

Job Rotation: systematically moving workers from one job to another to enhance work team performance &/or broaden his experience & identify strong & weak points. Job Enrichment: redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to feel responsible, growth & recognition (by planning and controlling his work)


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Specialized to Enlarged Jobs

Job Enlargement = same-level activities Job Rotation = moving from one job to another Job Enrichment = redesigning to experience more responsibility, achievement, growth and recognition


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Why are managers Dejobbing their companies

Dejobbing is broadening the responsibilities of the companys jobs and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to whats on their job description.


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Trends and De-Jobbing

Rapid product and technological changes


Global Changes



2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Why are managers Dejobbing their companies

Flatter Organizations Work Teams Boundaryless Organizations (virtual, network, modular) Reengineering


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Traditional Organization Chart

President Chief Executive Officer Executive Assistant

Vice President Sales

Vice President Marketing

Vice President Human Resources

Vice President Operations

Vice President Finance

Director East Region

Director West Region

Director Public Relations

Director Compensation and Benefits

Director Training and Development

Director Manufacturing

Driector Audit and Accounting

Manager Manager Manager Manager

Manager Manager Manager

Manager Manager

Clerk Administrator


Logistics Plant Manager

Tax Finance Accounting

Tech. Writer Plant Manager Sr. Trainer Manager Sr. Trainer Sales Sales Sales Sales Sales Clerk Accounting Accounting


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Flatter Organizations

Executive and Operations Team

Technical Development Team

Manufacturing Engineering Team

People Systems Team

Finance Team

Purchasing and Suppllier Quality Team

Sales, Service and Marketing Team


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Flat and Boundaryless Organizations

General Electric



Procter & Gamble


2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

Competency-based Job Analysis

We reviewed the nature of job analysis, how it is used, some legal issues and three methods of collecting job analysis information. We practiced writing job descriptions and looked at descriptions in detail. We reviewed the six steps involved in job analysis and reviewed traditional and contemporary methods of organizing. WHEW!