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Computer Organization

and Structure

Introduction
The Components of a Computer
What are two main components on the
motherboard?

Central Processing Unit


(CPU)
• Also called a processor
• Carries out instructions that tell
computer what to do

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Memory
then click Processors
Next
• Temporary holding place for data
p. 1.6 and instructions
Central Processing Unit
 Interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a
computer
 Also called the processor

CPU

p. 4.5 Fig. 4-5


Central Processing Unit
What are the components of the
CPU?

CPU

Control Arithmetic/
Unit Logic Unit
(ALU)

p. 4.5
Central Processing Unit
What is the control unit?

 Directs and coordinates


operations in computer
Control unit repeats
four basic operations:
 Fetch - obtain program
Control Unit instruction or data item from
memory
 Decode - translate instruction into
commands
 Execute - carry out command
 Store - write result to memory
p. 4.5
Central Processing Unit
What is the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) ?
 CPU
component Comparison
that (greater than, equal
performs to, or less than)
execution
part of the
d .
machine
cycle . an
.or. .not.
Arithmetic Logical
(addition, subtraction, (AND, OR,
multiplication, and NOT)
division)
Organization and Architecture
Computer Architecture
• Attributes of a system visible to a programmer

• Have a direct impact on the logical execution


of a program.

• Instruction set
• number of bits used for data
representation (numbers, characters)
• I/O mechanisms
• Memory Addressing techniques.
Cont’d
Computer Organization
• Refers to the operational units and their
interconnections.

• Organizational attributes include hardware


details such as

• Control signals
• Interfaces between computers and
peripherals (PCI, ISA, PCIe,USB, PCI-X)
• memory technology (DRAM, RDRAM)
Structure and Function
Structure and Function
 Structure is the way in which
components relate to each other

 Function is the operation of


individual components as part of the
structure
Function
 All computer functions are:
• Data processing
• Data storage
• Data movement
• Control
Cont’d

Functional View of the Computer


Operations (1) Data Movement
Operations (2) Storage
Operations (3) Processing
from/to storage
Operations (4) Processing from
storage to I/O
Structure – Top Level

Peripherals Computer

Central Main
Processing Memory
Unit

Computer
Systems
Interconnection

Input
Output
Communication
lines
Structure – The CPU
CPU

Computer Arithmetic
Registers and
I/O Logic Unit
System CPU
Bus
Internal CPU
Memory Interconnection

Control
Unit
Structure – The Control Unit
Control Unit

CPU
Sequencing
ALU Logic
Control
Internal
Unit
Bus
Control Unit
Registers Registers and
Decoders

Control
Memory
Computer Generations
The First Generation: 1940 –
1956 (The Vacuum Tube Years)
• ENIAC (Electronic
Numerical Integrator and
Computer)
• Constructed under the
supervision of John
Maulchy and John
Presper Eckert at the
University of
Pennsylvania.
• used vacuum tubes for
circuitry (18,000 tubes)
• magnetic drums for
memory
Cont’d
• were often enormous, taking up entire rooms (30
tons, 1500 square feet)

• very expensive to operate

• using a great deal of electricity (140kW)

• generated a lot of heat


Cont’d
• relied on machine language to perform
operations

• could only solve one problem at a time

• Input was based on punched cards and


paper tape

• was completed in 1946 and was first


used to determine the feasibility of the
hydrogen bomb.
The von Neumann Machine
 Attributed to John von Neumann
 Based on the Stored Program Concept
• program is stored in memory alongside
the data

• Read the memory to get instructions

• Program can be altered by setting the


values of a portion of memory.
Cont’d
 Consists of:
• A main memory, which stores both data and
instructions

• ALU, operating on binary data

• Control unit, interprets the instructions in


memory and cause them to be executed.

• Input and output (I/O) equipment operated by


the control unit.
Cont’d
• Input and output (I/O) equipment
operated by the control unit

• Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies


designed IAS

• Completed 1952
Structure of von Neumann Machine
Cont’d
 The memory of the IAS consists of 1000
storage locations called words, of 40 binary
digits each.
 Both data and instructions are stored there.
 Each number is represented by a sign bit and
a 39-bit value.
 A word may also contain two 20-bit
instructions, with each instruction consisting of
an 8-bit operation code (opcode) specifying
the operations to be performed and a 12-bit
address designating one of the words in
memory.
0 1 39

Sign Bit (a) Number word

Left Instruction Right Instruction

Opcode Address Opcode Address

(b) Instruction word

Fig. 2.2 IAS Memory Formats


Types of Registers
 Memory Buffer Register (MBR) –
contains a word to be stored in memory or
sent to the I/O unit, or is used to receive a
word from memory or from the I/O unit.

 Memory Address Register (MAR) –


specifies the address in memory of the
word to be written from or read into the
MBR.

 Instruction Register (IR) – contains the


8-bit opcode instruction being executed.
cont’d
 Instruction buffer register (IBR) –
employed to hold temporarily the right-hand
instruction from a word in memory.

 Program counter (PC) – contains the


address of the next instruction-pair to be
fetched from memory.

 Accumulator (AC) and multiplier


quotient (MQ) – employed to hold
temporarily operands and results of the ALU
operations.
cont’d
 The IAS operates by repetitively
performing an instruction cycle.

 Each instruction cycle consists of two


sub cycles: the fetch and execute
cycle.

 The IAS computer had a total of 21


instructions. They can be grouped as
follows:
Cont’d
 Data Transfer: Move data between
memory and ALU registers or between two
ALU registers.
 Unconditional Branch: Normally, the CU
executes instructions in sequence from
memory. This sequence can be changed
by a branch instructions.
 Conditional branch: This branch can be
made dependent on a condition, thus
allowing decision points.
Cont’d
• UNIVAC - UNIVersal Automatic Computer
- first commercial computer delivered to a
business client

• ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer


- The world’s first operational electronic digital
computer
The Second Generation: 1956 –
1963 (The Era of the Transistors)

• Transistors replaced vacuum tubes

• Transistor is a device composed of


semiconductor material that amplifies a
signal or opens or closes a circuit
Cont’d
• Today's microprocessors contains tens of millions
of microscopic transistors

• first computers that stored their instructions in


their memory

• computers moved from cryptic binary machine


language to symbolic, or assembly languages

• DEC delivered its first computer, the PDP-1


Cont’d
 Data channels were introduced in this
generation.

 Data channel is an independent I/O module


with its own processor and its own
instructions set.

 Another new feature is the multiplexor,


which is the central termination point for
data channels, the CPU and memory.
Cont’d

• High-level programming languages were also


being developed

• early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN


The Third Generation: 1964 –
1971 (Integrated Circuits)
• Transistors were miniaturized and
placed on silicon chips (semiconductors)

• Computer chips, both for CPU and


memory, are composed of
semiconductor materials

• Semiconductors make it possible to


miniaturize electronic components, such
as transistors
Cont’d
• components take up less space

• faster

• require less energy


Cont’d
• users interacted through keyboards and
monitors

• interfaced with an operating system


The Fourth Generation: 1971 –
Present (The Microprocessor)
• thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a
single silicon chip that contains a CPU.

• Sits at the heart of all personal computer and


workstations.
Cont’d
• Three basic characteristics differentiate
microprocessors:

 Instruction Set: The set of instructions


that the microprocessor can execute.

 Bandwidth: The number of bits processed


in a single instruction.

 Clock Speed: Given in megahertz (MHz),


the clock speed determines how many
instructions per second the processor can
execute.
Cont’d
• Two typical components of a CPU are:

 The arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which


performs arithmetic and logical operations.

 The control unit, which extracts instructions


from memory and decodes and executes
them, calling on the ALU when necessary.
The Fifth Generation: Present and
Beyond (Artificial Intelligence)
• voice recognition
• parallel processing
• superconductors
• Quantum computation
• molecular and nanotechnology
• develop devices that respond to natural
language input and are capable of
learning and self-organization.
Reaction Paper
• Nanotechnology and Nanoscience
• http://domino.research.ibm.com/comm/rese

• Quantum Computation
• http://www.quantiki.org/wiki/index.php/Cat
Reaction Paper
 Title Page
 Begin with brief summary of the article(s)
 Main Body
• Identify & explain any concepts or theories
from the textbook that is pertinent to this
article.
• How has this article impacted your thinking?
• Did you like or dislike it?
• How does it relate to your life?
• How will you integrate the exposure of this
literature into your professional path?
 Bibliography
Babbages’s Analytical Engine
The machine was designed
to use two types of cards
– the operations card to
indicate the specific
functions to be performed,
and the variable card, to
specify the actual data.

He introduced the modern


day computers’ stored-
program concept.

The engine was completed


in 1910 by his son.