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# CLB 10102 PHYSICS

## 10.1 Expansion and Contraction

As the average energy of particles increases, the spaces between the particles increases. They expand (increase their volume) as the temperature increases. As the average energy of particles decreases, the spaces between the particles decreases. They contract (decrease their volume) as the temperature decreases. Pure substances are matter that are made up of only one kind of particle, which can be a solid liquid or a gas. These phases, or states have very specific properties in relation to the particle model.

## CHAPTER 10 Thermal Expansion

Expansion in Solids
Most solids expand when heated and contract when cooled. They expand or contract in all three dimensions length, width and thickness. When a solid is heated, the expansion is due to the increased length of the vibrations of the atoms and molecules. This results in the solid expanding in all directions volume increased, weight density decreased.

## CHAPTER 10 Thermal Expansion

When the particles in a gas are heated, their average energy increases and they need more room, so they expand. When the particles in a gas are cooled, the volume decreases, or contracts, because the particles need less room. Under extremely high temperature conditions (like the temperatures inside the Sun, particles can be split into what makes them up (electrons and ions). This creates a fourth state of matter called plasma.

## CHAPTER 10 Thermal Expansion

When the particles in a liquid are heated, their average energy increases and they need more room, so they expand. When the particles in a liquid are cooled, the volume decreases, or contracts, because the particles need less room. This is demonstrated by the liquid used in a thermometer. As the liquid expands and contracts, it moves up and down the inside tubing the thermometer.

## 10.2 Coefficient of Linear Expansion

The linear expansion of a heated solid or liquid can be measured by a quantity , the coefficient of linear expansion. This coefficient is defined in such a way that it measures the percentage change in the length per degree temperature change. The change in length, per unit original length per 1oC change in temperature, is called the coefficient of linear expansion.
L LoT
L = change in length
= coefficient of linear expansion Lo = original length T = change in temperature

## CHAPTER 10 Thermal Expansion

Expansions in surface area and volume are negligible. A varies slightly over a range of temperatures, but the variation is negligibly small. The amount that a solid expands depends on the following: Material. Different materials expand at different rates. Steel expands at a rate less than that of brass. Length of the solid. The longer the solid, the larger is the expansion. Amount of change in temperature. The greater the change in temperature, the greater is expansion.

## CHAPTER 10 Thermal Expansion

Example:
A steel bridge is built in several segments, each 20 m long. The gap between segments is 4 cm at 18 C. What is the maximum temperature that the bridge can manage before buckling? [Coefficient of thermal expansion of steel, steel is 12 x 10-6 K-1]
L LoT

0.04 m = (20 m)(12 x 10-6 K-1)T T = 0.04 m (20 m)(12 x 10-6 K-1) = 166.67 K Tf = T + To = 166.67 K + (18 + 273.15 K) = 457.82 K @ 184.67oC

## 10.3 Coefficient of Superficial Expansion

The change in surface area per unit original area per 1oC change in temperature is called the coefficient of superficial expansions.

A 2AoT
Expansion in volume is negligible.

, Ao = original area

## 10.4 Coefficient of Cubic Expansion

The change in volume per unit original volume per 1oC change in temperature is called coefficient of cubical expansion.

V 3VoT

, Vo = original volume

## Coefficients of Thermal Expansion for Selected Materials

Material aluminium Linear (106 K1) 23.1 Material platinum Linear (106 K1) 8.8

barium ferrite
brass carbon, diamond carbon, graphite ||

10
20.3 1.18 6.5

plutonium

54
4.68 18.9 25

carbon, graphite
chromium concrete copper

0.5
4.9 8 ~ 12 16.5

steel, stainless
steel, structural tin titanium

17.3
12 22 8.5

germanium
glass gold iron

6.1
8.5 14.2 11.8

tungsten
uranium water, ice (0 C) zinc

4.5
13.9 51 30.2

28.9

nickel

13.3

## Coefficients of Thermal Expansion for Selected Materials

Material alcohol, ethyl gasoline jet fuel, kerosene Volume (106 K1) 1120 950 990

mercury
water, liquid (1 C) water, liquid (4 C) water, liquid (10 C)

181
-50 0 88

## water, liquid (20 C)

water, liquid (30 C) water, liquid (40 C) water, liquid (50 C)

207
303 385 457

522

## 10.5 Practical Application of Thermal Expansion

Clinical Thermometer Another thermometer that you are probably familiar with is the clinical thermometer. It also uses expansion and contraction of a liquid to measure temperature. But it must be sensitive to a very small changes in temperature, and able to measure temperatures only within a few degrees of normal body temperatures (37C). As the liquid is warmed by the patient's body heat, it expands past the constriction to show the patient's temperature. After the thermometer has been removed from the patient's mouth, the liquid cools and contracts. But the liquid cannot move past the constriction; it must be forced back by shaking the thermometer downward.

## CHAPTER 10 Thermal Expansion

Thermostat A thermostat can be used to measure temperature in an appliance, such as a furnace, or in a room. It can also switch appliances on or off at a preset temperature. Thermostats use the expansion and contraction of solids to measure temperature. They contain a strip of two metals (called a bimetallic strip). When heated or cooled, the two metals expand or contract by different amounts, causing the strip to bend. The amount of bending depends on the temperature. It provides a measure of the temperature.

## CHAPTER 10 Thermal Expansion

Outdoor Thermometer One thermometer that you are probably familiar with is the outdoor thermometer. It uses the expansion and contraction of a liquid to measure temperature. The liquid in the bulb (usually ethyl alcohol with colouring added) expands when it is warmed and is forced up the narrow bore on its temperature. The more the liquid cools. It contracts, dropping lower in the bore.