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Chapter 14




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• Trace leasing industry evoluation
• Give the nature of leasing and elements of leasing
• Explain the Mechanism of leasing
• Explain the different types of leasing
• Distinguish between financial lease and operating lease
• List advantages of leasing
• Discuss aspects of leasing
• Know evaluation of lease proposal
• Give the nature of hire puchase
• Give the contents of HP agreement
• Distinguish between HP and leasing
• Know evaluation of HP proposal

Leasing Industry
• Originated in Western Countries
• USA is the 3rd largest country with 1/3 of business investment
• Leasing activity in India was initiated in 1973
• In 1973 “First Leasing Company of India Ltd.” established, by
Farock Irani
• Second stage started in 1981
• Third stage started in 1982
• On 31.3.1986 there were 399 equipment leasing companies

Meaning and Essential Elements of

Lease: A contract where lessor provides asset and gives the right
to use asset to lessee, in return for a number of specified
• Essential Elements:
– Two parties
– Period of lease
– Asset
– Lease rent

Mechanics of Lease

Types of Leases

Distinguish between Financial and
Operating Lease
Point of Difference Financial lease Operating lease
1. Term Long-Term Short-Term
2. Cancelability Non-cancelable Cancelable
3. Lease period Equals t life of the asset Less than the life of the
4. Transfer of all risksSubstantially transfers Does not transfer
and returns substantially
5. Maintenance Payable by lessor
Payable by lessee
Insurance and taxes
6. Asset selection Selected by lessor
Selected by lessee
7. Lease capitalization In the books of lessee In the books of lessor

Advantages of Lease Finance
•Conserve capital
•100 per cent finance
•Free up capital
•Saves Bank line of credit
•Benefit of tax shield
•Custom tailored to lessee needs
•Avoids restrictive covenants
•Low risk of obsolescence risk
•Expeditious implementation
•No ownership dilution
Lease Agreement

• Lease agreement has to fulfill the requirements of


Tax provisions

• Lease attracts sales tax

• Lessor eligible to claim depreciation
• Entire lease rent is taxable for lessor
• Lessee can show lease rent as expense in P&L Account

Accounting Treatment of Lease
[operating lease]

• In Lessor Books: Asset shown in asset side; lease rent treated

as income; depreciation claimed by lessor
• In Lessee Books: Asset is off-balance sheet; not eligible to
deduct depreciation; lease rent is shown as expense in P&L

Accounting Treatment of Lease
[Financial lease]
• In Lessee Books: Asset is shown in lessee balance sheet; lease
rent is split into principal and interest; asset is depreciated in the
books of lessee
• In Lessor Books: Asset is not shown in lessor books, only lease
rent is shown as income

Lease Evaluation [Lessor’s view point]

I. Based on NPV
II. Based on IRR

Lease Rent Determination
1. Calculation of cash outflows (Cost of asset)
2. Calculation of benefits (cash inflows) arising from ownership of an asset.
3. Computation of PV of benefits calculated in step 1.
4. Calculation of minimum cost (amount) to be recovered through lease rentals

(i.e cost of asset less benefits computed in step 1.)

5. Calculation of post
Minimum Cost tax
need to be equivalent
Recov ered annual cost
PVIFA k .n

6. Adjust post tax equivalent annual cost for the tax factor [i.e., tax need to be
paid on receipt lease rental]
Post Tax Equivalent Annual Cost
1 − Tax Rate

The last step gives the lumpsum amount of lease rental need to be collected.
But some times lease rentals may be expressed per thousand basis.
Lease Evaluation [Lessee’s view point]
• The lease-versus-buying decision involves use of capital budgeting
techniques. Evaluation of lease proposal as a financing decision involves
the following four steps:
Step 1: Calculation of after – tax cash outflows for each year under lease
Step 2: Calculation of after – tax cash outflows for each year under buying
Step 3: Calculation of PV of cash outflows of lease (step 1) option and
buying (step 2) option
Step 4: Select an option which is coming with less PV of cash outflows.
• Decision Rule:
Buy the Asset: If PV of cash outflows of buying option is less than leasing
Lease the Asset: If PV of cash outflows of buying option is higher than
leasing option.

Equivalent Loan Method
• Equivalent Loan Method: Amount of loan can be served with
lease cash outflows

Hire-purchase Finance Evolution

• Developed in UK
• Now found in India; Australia; New Zealand
• Commercial Credit Corporation is first company in India

Meaning and Essentials of HP
• Hire purchase is a conditional sale of contract.
• Essentials:
– Owner (hirer)
– User (hirer)
– Asset
– HP installment

Contents of Valid HP agreement
• A clear description of the goods
• The cash price of the goods
• The HP price
• The deposit
• The monthly installments
• Comprehensive statement of the parties rights

Hirer’s Rights and Obligations
• To buy goods at any time by giving notice
• To return the goods to the buyer
• With consent of owner assign burden and benefit to third party
• Recover the goods plus damages for loss if owner wrongfully
repossesses the goods
• To pay the hire installments
• To take reasonable care of the goods
• To inform the owner where the goods will be kept

Owner’s Rights
• To forfeit the deposit
• To retain the installments already paid and recover the balance
• To repossess the goods
• To claim damages for any loss suffered

Distinguish between HP and
Point of Difference HP Lease

Ownership transfer Transferred after the payment of last Never transferred

Depreciation claim for tax purpose Hirer entitled to claim depreciation for tax Complete lease rent is allowed for
purpose tax deduction
Tax benefit Only interest component in Hire purchase Complete lease rent is allowed for
installment is allowed tax deduction and tax deduction
not portion of principle amount

Benefit of scrap value Hirer can enjoy the benefit of scrap value Lessee cannot enjoy the benefit of
scrap value, because he/she is not
the owner of asset

Amount of finance Relative low when compared to leasing Huge amount is involved

Maintenance of the asset Hirer has to spent money on maintenance If the lease is finance lease, lessee
pays maintenance cost, otherwise
lesser pays maintenance cost

Tax and Accounting Treatment of HP
HP transactions are attracted to sales tax Accounting treatment
Hirer Books:
• The asset part on balance sheet
• The liability on the liability side
• HP installment-interest component is shown is expense in P&L Account
• Principal amount deducted from asset
• Hirer is allowed to enjoy tax benefit on depreciation
Hiree Books:
• Interest charge is shown as income
• Amount spent on HP agreement is treated as expense

Determination of HP Installment
• HP installment: Equals to principal amount plus
total interest dividend by number of installments

HPI = Pr incipal Amount + Total Interest Over Installment Period at Flat Rate
Number of Installments

Split of HP Installment into interest and
principal amount

• There are three methods available in vogue:

1. Straight line splitting [equally on the tenure of hire)
2. Sum-of-Digits or Sum-of-Values-Digits [in proportion to the
number of installments or the value of installments (unequal
installment are) outstanding
3. Capital Recovery Method (Repayment of a part of capital)

Leasing vs. HP
• For evaluation of leasing and HP option companies (user of asset) need to
calculate PV of net cash outflows, and decide the option that involves less
net cash out flow. Thus there are three steps involved in evaluation of
Lease vs HP
1. Estimation of post tax cash flows associated with leasing as well as HP
Leasing: Post Tax Cast Flows = Post Tax Lease Rental
: Lease Rent (1-tax rate)
HP: Post Tax Cash Flows = Post – Tax Interest + Principal Amount – Tax
Benefit on Differentiation
: I(1-t) – PRt + Dt(t)
2. Calculation of PV of post tax cash associated with leasing as well as
HP: Here companies need to use cost of debt (Kd) as discounting rate.
3. Choose the option which has a lower PV of cash outflows.