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AC MOTORS

TYPES OF AC MOTOR

AC MOTORS

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

3-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

INDUCTION MOTOR
Stator of three phase induction motor is made up of numbers of slots to construct a 3 phase winding circuit which is connected to 3 phase ac source. the three phase windings are arranged in such a manner in the slots that they produce a rotating magnetic field after ac is given to them. Rotor of three phase induction motor consists of cylindrical laminated core with parallel slots that can carry conductors. they are short circuited by the end rings. the slots are not exactly made parallel to the axis of the shaft but are slotted a little skewed because this arrangement reduces magnetic humming noise. The stator is connected to a 3 phase ac source, it establishes a rotating magnetic field which rotates at the synchronous speed. an emf induced in any circuit is due to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage through the circuit. as the rotor windings in an induction motor are either closed through an external resistance or directly shorted by end ring, and cut the stator rotating magnetic field, an emf is induced in the rotor copper bar and due to this emf a current flows through the rotor conductor.

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Synchronous motor is a doubly excited machine i.e two electrical inputs are provided to it. Stator winding which consists of a 3 phase winding is provided with 3 phase supply and rotor is provided with DC supply. The 3 phase stator winding carrying 3 phase currents produces 3 phase rotating magnetic flux. The rotor carrying DC supply also produces a constant flux. At a particular instant rotor and stator poles might be of same polarity (N-N or S-S) causing repulsive force on rotor and the very next second it will be N-S causing attractive force. But due to inertia of the rotor, it is unable to rotate in any direction due to attractive or repulsive force and remain in standstill condition. Hence it is not self starting. To overcome this inertia, rotor is initially fed some mechanical input which rotates it in same direction as magnetic field to a speed very close to synchronous speed. After some time magnetic locking occurs and the synchronous motor rotates in synchronism with the frequency.

TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS


When the induction rotor is already rotating at no load conditions, its rotating speed is near to synchronous speed. At no-load, the rotor slip is very small, and so the relative motion between rotor and magnetic field is very small, and the rotor frequency is also very small. The voltage induced in the bars of the rotor is very small, and the resulting current flow is also very small. As the motors load increases, its slip increases, and the rotor speed falls and there is more relative motion between rotor and stator magnetic fields and a stronger rotor voltage which in turn produces a larger rotor current and the rotor magnetic field also increases which tends to increase the torque, the overall induced torque increases to supply the motors increased load. As the load on the shaft is increased, a further increase in load decreases torque and the motor stops. This effect is known as pullout torque.

INTERNATIONAL COOLING (IC)


CODE
DIAGRAM

DESCRIPTION
Enclosure IP 21- IP 23 Self-ventilated with integral fan cooling Cooling air is blown through the motor by a fan mounted on the shaft.

IC 01

IC 06

Enclosure IP 21- IP 23 Separate ventilation with radial fitted fan unit Cooling air is blown through the motor by a separately excited fan motor. The inlet side may be equipped with an air filter.
Enclosure IP 21- IP 23 Single pipe ventilated Cooling air is blown across the motor through the pipe connection with a separate customer provided external blower fan and discharges on the other side to open space.

IC 17

CODE

DIAGRAM

DESCRIPTION Enclosure IP 44 - IP 55 Totally-enclosed non-ventilated Cooling without using a fan, only by natural ventilation and radiation on the totally enclosed motor surface. Enclosure IP 44 - IP 55 Totally-enclosed fan-cooled Cooling air is blown over the totally enclosed motor surface by a fan mounted on the shaft. Enclosure IP 44 - IP 55 External surface cooling Cooling air is blown over the totally enclosed motor surface by a separately excited fan motor. Enclosure IP 44 - IP 55 Double pipe ventilated (TEPV) Cooling air is blown across the motor through a pipe connecting by means of a separate customer provided external blower fan and discharges on the other sides pipe connecting.

IC 410

IC 411

IC 416

IC 37

DUTY OF MOTORS
Continuous Duty (S1)
The motor operates at a continuous load for sufficient time to enable machine to reach thermal equilibrium.

Short Time Duty (S2)

Operation at constant load for a given time, less than that required to reach thermal equilibrium, followed by a time de-energized and at rest of sufficient duration to re-establish machine temperatures within 2K of the coolant temperature.

Intermittent Periodic Duty (S3)

A sequence of identical duty cycles, each including a time of operation at constant load and a time deenergized and at rest. In this duty, the cycle is such that the starting current does not significantly affect the temperature rise.

Intermittent Periodic Duty With Starting (S4)

A series of identical duty cycles each a constant load for a period, followed by a rest period, but there is a significant starting time within the periodic operation which gives rise to temperature.

Intermittent Periodic Duty with Electric Braking (S5) A sequence of identical duty cycles, each cycle consisting of a starting time, a time of operation at constant load, a time of electric braking and a time de-energized and at rest. A sequence of identical duty cycles, each cycle consisting of a time of operation at constant load and a time of operation at no-load. There is no time de-energized and at rest.

Continuous Operation Periodic Duty (S6)

Continuous Operation Periodic Duty with Electric Braking (S7) A sequence of identical duty cycles, each cycle consisting of a starting time, a time of operation at constant load and a time of electric braking. There is no time de-energized and at rest. Continuous Operation Periodic Duty with Electric Braking (S7) A sequence of identical duty cycles, each cycle consisting of a starting time, a time of operation at constant load and a time of electric braking. There is no time de-energized and at rest.

Continuous Operation Periodic Duty with Related Load/Speed Changes (S8)

A sequence of identical duty cycles, each cycle consisting of a time of operation at constant load corresponding to a predetermined speed of rotation, followed by one or more times of operation at other constant loads corresponding to different speeds of rotation.

Duty with non-periodic load and speed variations (S9)

A duty in which generally load and speed vary nonperiodically within the permissible operating range. This duty includes frequently applied overloads that may greatly exceed the reference load. For this duty type, a constant load appropriately selected and based on duty type S1 is taken as the reference value ("Pref") for the overload concept.

Duty with Discrete Constant Loads and Speeds (S10)

A duty consisting of a specific number of discrete values of load and if applicable, speed, each load/speed combination being maintained for sufficient time to allow the machine to reach thermal equilibrium. The minimum load within a duty cycle may have the value zero (no-load or de-energized and at rest).

IP CODES

First digit - The first digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against access to hazardous parts (e.g., electrical conductors, moving parts) and the ingress of solid foreign objects. IP0X No protection against contact and ingress of objects. IP1X Full penetration of objects over 50.0mm diameter sphere not allowed. Contact with hazardous parts not permitted e.g. hands, large tools. IP2X Full penetration of objects over 12.5mm diameter sphere not allowed e.g. hands, small tools. IP3X Full penetration of objects over 2.5mm diameter sphere not allowed e.g. wire, small tools. IP4X Full penetration of objects over 1.0mm diameter sphere not allowed e.g. wires. IP5X Limited ingress of dust permitted. Ingress of dust is not totally prevented, but dust shall not penetrate in a sufficient quantity to interfere with satisfactory operation of the apparatus or to impair safety.

IP6X No ingress of dust allowed. The enclosure is totally protected from dust.

Second digit - The second digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against harmful ingress of water. IPX0 No protection against ingress of water.

IPX1 Protected against vertically falling drops of water.


IPX2 Protected against vertically falling drops of water when enclosure tilted to 150. IPX3 Protected against spraying water. Water sprayed at an angle up to 600 on either side of the vertical should have no harmful effects.

IPX4 Protected against splashing water. Water splashed against the enclosure from any side should have no harmful effects.
IPX5 Protected against water jets. Water projected in jets against the enclosure from any direction shall have not harmful effects. IPX6 Protected against powerful water jets. Water projected in powerful jets against the enclosure from any direction shall have not harmful effects. IPX7 Protected against effect to temporary immersion in water. Ingress of water quantities causing harmful effects shall not be possible when the enclosure is temporarily immersed in water under standard conditions of pressure and time. IPX8 Protected against effect to continuous immersion in water. Ingress of water quantities causing harmful effects shall not be possible when the enclosure is continuously immersed in water under conditions agreed between manufacturer and user which are more severe than numeral 7.

Third digit (Optional) - The third digit indicates the level of protection against access to hazardous parts. A Protected against access with back of a hand. B Protected against access with a finger.

C Protected against access with a tool.


D Protected against access with a wire. Fourth digit (Optional) - The fourth digit indicates the basic safety standards H High Voltage apparatus. M Tested for harmful ingress of water when movable parts are in motion. S Tested for harmful ingress of water when movable parts are stationary.

W Suitable for use under specified weather conditions and provided with additional protective features.

VECTOR GROUPS
Winding connection designations First Symbol: for High Voltage: Always capital letters.
D=Delta, Y=Star, Z=Interconnected star, N=Neutral

Second Symbol: for Low voltage: Always Small letters.

d=Delta, y=Star, z=Interconnected star, n=Neutral(when neutral brought out)


Digit 0 = 0 LV phasor is in phase with the HV phasor Digit 1 = 30 lagging (LV lags HV with 30) because rotation is anti-clockwise. Digit 11 = 330 lagging or 30 leading (LV leads HV with 30) Digit 5 = 150 lagging (LV lags HV with 150) Digit 6 = 180 lagging (LV lags HV with 180)

Third Symbol: Phase displacement expressed as the clock hour number

Phase Shift (Deg) 0 30 lag 60 lag 120 lag 150 lag 180 lag 150 lead 120 lead 60 lead 30 lead Yd11 Yd5 Yy6 Yd7 Yy0 Yd1

Connection Dd0 Dy1 Dd2 Dd4 Dy5 Dd6 Dy7 Dd8 Dd10 Dy11 Dz0 Yz1 Dz2 Dz4 Yz5 Dz6 Yz7 Dz8 Dz10 Yz11

Two winding, three phase transformers can be divided into four main categories
Group Group I Group II Group III Group IV 0 oclock, 0 6 oclock, 180 1 oclock, -30 11 oclock, +30 Oclock Connection delta/delta, star/star delta/delta, star/star star/delta, delta/star star/delta, delta/star

Minus indicates LV lagging HV, plus indicates LV leading HV

INSULATION CLASS
INSULATION CLASS MAX. PERMISSIBLE TEMP. (0C)

Y
A E B F H C

90
105 120 130 155 180 OVER 180

Harmonics
Harmonics are a distortion of the normal electrical current waveform, generally transmitted by nonlinear loads. Switch-mode power supplies (SMPS), variable speed motors and drives, photocopiers, personal computers, laser printers, fax machines, battery chargers and UPSs are examples of nonlinear loads. Harmonics are currents or voltages with frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental power frequency. If the fundamental power frequency is 60 Hz, then the 2nd harmonic is 120 Hz, the 3rd is 180 Hz, etc. When harmonic frequencies are prevalent, electrical power panels and transformers become mechanically resonant to the magnetic fields generated by higher frequency harmonics. When this happens, the power panel or transformer vibrates and emits a buzzing sound for the different harmonic frequencies. Harmonic frequencies from the 3rd to the 25th are the most common range of frequencies measured in electrical distribution systems.

Waveform

Problems caused by Harmonic Currents

Equipment heating Equipment malfunction Equipment failure Communications interference Fuse and breaker mis-operation Process problems Conductor heating

Common Sources of Harmonics

Fluorescent lighting Computer switch mode power supplies Static VAR compensators Variable frequency motor drives (VFD) DC-DC converters Inverters Television power supplies

AC or DC motor drives

Reducing Harmonics

Add Line Chokes to Harmonic Producing Equipment Add Isolation Transformer to Harmonic Producing Equipment Add Tuned capacitor banks to Supply Harmonic Current Use Delta Delta and Delta Wye Transformer. Delta-connected transformers can block the flow of zero-sequence harmonics from the line. Zigzag and grounding transformers can shunt the triplens off the line. The line reactor is the best solution for harmonic reduction when compared to an isolation transformer. AC drives that use diode bridge rectifier front ends are best suited for line reactors.