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Chapter 1

Introduction

Contents
Engineering drawing
Drawing standards
Drawing sheet Scale Lettering Line types

Engineering Drawing
The words of the language, as they are written or spoken, do not seem to play any role in my mechanism of thought. The psychical entities which seem to serve as elements in thought are certain signs and more or less clear images which can be voluntarily reproduced and combined--this combinatory play seems to be the essential feature in productive thought before there is any connection with logical construction in words or other kinds of signs which are communicated to others

--Albert Einstein
Contents

Effectiveness of Graphic Language


1. Try to write a description of this object.
2. Test your written description by having someone attempt to make a sketch or visualize from your description.
You can easily understand that

The word language is inadequate for describing the size,

shape and features completely as well as concisely.

Graphic Language in Engineering Drawing


Engineering drawing or blueprint uses lines to
represent the features of an object. Features of an object are surface (include plane) and edge.
Surface Edge

Ways to Create an Engineering Drawing


A drawing can be created in 3 ways 1. Freehand sketch

2. Using typical drawing instruments


3. Using a computer

Create a Drawing : Freehand sketch


The lines are drawn using only pencil and erasers on a
blank or grid paper.

Example

Pictorial sketch

Orthographic sketch

Create a Drawing : Using instruments


Drawing instruments are used to draw straight lines, circles, and curves concisely and accurately. Drawings are usually made to scale. Example

Create a Drawing : Using a computer


Computer aided drafting (CAD) software is used. Example

2D drawing

Solid modeling

Elements of a Drawing
A clear and precise engineering drawing requires both graphics and word languages.

Graphics language
Describe a shape (mainly).

Word language
Describe an exact size, location and specification of the object.

Text on drawings : Example


Dimensions & Notes

General notes

Title block

Knowledge and Skills Require


Engineering Drawing

Graphics language
Geometric construction
Using line types

Word language
Projection method

Dimensions & Notes

Visualization

Visualization is the ability to mentally picture things that do not exists.


Contents

Drawing Standard

Drawing sheet

Scale

Lettering

Line types

Contents

Definition and Necessity


Drawing standards are set of rules that govern how technical drawings are represented. Drawing standards are used so that drawings convey the same meaning to everyone who reads them.

Standard Code
Country USA Code ANSI JIS Full name American National Standard Institute

Japan
UK Australia Germany

Japanese Industrial Standard


British Standard Australian Standard Deutsches Institut fr Normung International Standards Organization

BS
AS DIN

ISO

Examples of JIS Standard


Code number JIS Z 8311 JIS Z 8314 JIS Z 8312 JIS Z 8313 JIS Z 8315 JIS Z 8316 JIS Z 8317 Contents Sizes and Format of Drawings Scales Line Conventions Lettering Projection methods Presentation of Views and Sections Dimensioning

Drawing Standard
Drawing Sheet

Drawing standard

Contents

Drawing Sheet : Standard size


Trimmed paper of
A4 A3 A2

a size A0 ~ A4.
Standard sheet size (JIS) A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 210 x 297 297 x 420 420 x 594 594 x 841 841 x 1189

A1

A0
(Dimensions in millimeters)

Drawing Sheet : Orientation & Margin


1. Type X (A0~A4) c Sheet size c A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 c (min) d (min) 10 10 10 20 20 25 25 25 25 25

Border d lines

Drawing space

Title block
2. Type Y (A4 only) d
Drawing space

Title block

Drawing Standard
Drawing Scale

Drawing standard

Contents

Drawing Scales : Definition


Length, size

Scale is a ratio between the linear dimension of a drawn representation of an object and the actual object.

Drawing

Actual

Drawing Scales : Designation


Designation of a scale consists of the word SCALE followed by the indication of its ratio, as follows SCALE 1:1 for full size SCALE X:1 (X > 1) for an enlargement scales SCALE 1:X (X > 1) for a reduction scales

Drawing scale is commonly found in a title block.

Drawing Scales : Notes


Dimension numbers shown in the drawing represent the true size of an object and they are independent of

the drawing scale used.

Drawing Scales : Standard scale


Standard reducing scales are 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50, 1:100 Standard enlarging scales are 2:1, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 50:1, 100:1

Drawing Standard
Lettering

Drawing standard

Contents

Recommendation
Texts style on the drawing Examples
GOOD Not uniform in style.

must have the following


2 properties Legibility
- Shape - Space between letters - Space between words

Not uniform in height.

Not uniformly vertical.

Uniformity
- Size (or text height)
- line thickness

Not uniform in thickness of stroke.

Inappropriate space between letters

Style (this course)


Gothic vertical style.

Begin the sentence, phrase or word with a capital letter.


Text height 2~3 mm.

Space between lines of text is about of text height.


Height of the lower-case letter is about 2/3 of that of a

capital letter.

Basic Strokes
Straight Slanted Horizontal Curved

Examples
I letter
1

A letter
1
2 1

B letter
4 5

3 3 2

Upper-caseStrokes Letters & Numerals Suggested Sequence


Straight line letters

Curved line letters & Numerals

Lower-case Letters

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


I
L T F

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


V X W

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


N

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


O
Q C G

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


D U P B

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


1 2 5

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Upper-case


S
0 3

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case


l i

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case


v w x k

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case


j y f t

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case


c

Skip section

Stroke Sequence : Lower-case


g
n m h

Skip section

Word Composition
Space between the letters depends on the adjacent

contour of the letters.


Non-uniform spacing Uniform spacing

DRAWING

D R A W IN G

Word having non-uniform spacing is more readable.

Word Composition

DRAWING
Contour

Contour can be denoted as straight, slant and curve. Adjacent contour can be
1. straight-straight : II, IN, IM, IP etc.
: IV, IW etc.

2. straight-curve (or curve-straight) : IO, QR etc.

3. straight-slant (or slant-straight)


4. curve-curve 5. slant-curve (or curve-slant) 6. slant-slant

: OO, OG etc.
: VO, WG, VC etc.

: VW, VX etc.

Spacing

Sentence Composition
Leave the space between words equal to the space requires for writing a letter O.

Example

ALL ODIMENSIONS OARE OIN MILLIMETERS OUNLESS OTHERWISE O SPECIFIED.

Drawing Standard
Line Types

Drawing standard

Contents

Basic Line Types & Name according to application


Thickness Style Thick
Visible line

Thin

1. Dimension line 2. Extension line 3. Leader line Hidden line Center line

Continuous Dash Chain


1. Visible line

represent features that can be seen in the current view.

2. Dimension line Extension line indicate the sizes and location of features. Leader line 3. Hidden line 4. Center line represent features that can not be seen in the current view. represents symmetry, path of motion, centers of circles,

axis of axisymmetrical parts

Example

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