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Introduction Types of isolators Literature review Numerical background Response of base isolated structures Application of base isolation system Case study and results References

Need for seismic base isolation
a!or destruction due to eart" #uakes $Nort"ridge %&&'( )obe %&&*( c"i+c"i %&&&,

-art" resisting tec"ni#ues

."ear wall /raced frame oment resisting frames Increasing ductility of structure 0se of 1amping devices

2"at is base isolation3 0ncoupling t"e building from t"e ground 4riginal terminology of base isolation is more commonly replaced wit" seismic isolation In bridges( isolation is provided between superstructure and t"e pier or abutment

Need for seismic base isolation

.ome structures are designed to sustain static loads $ not designed to carry dynamic forces, 5 Unfavorable dynamic characteristics results in increased seismic response Can not be realistically designed to remain elastic in large seismic events $more so in regions of "ig" seismicity, Concept used for design

capacity 6 demand

T"e eart"#uake causes inertia forces proportional to t"e product of t"e building mass and t"e eart"#uake ground accelerations5 As t"e ground accelerations increases( t"e strengt" of t"e building( t"e capacity( must be increased to avoid structural damage5

Need for seismic base isolation

Not practical to continue to increase t"e strengt" of t"e building indefinitely .trengt"ening met"ods: Expensive and leads to higher floor accelerations Ductility to achieve capacity: concept of allowing t"e structural elements to deform beyond their elastic limit in a controlled manner5 Ductility increase: irreplaceable damage to structural components not appropriate for "ospital design

Ductility concept of design


Fixed Base

es nops e R

/ase isolation systems significantly Increase t"e 7eriod of t"e .tructure and t"e 1amping so t"at t"e Response is .ignificantly Reduced


Base Isolated

Increased 1amping reduces t"e acceleration of t"e system

/ase isolation increases t"e flexibility of t"e structure A building t"at is perfectly rigid will "ave a 8ero period5 2"en t"e ground moves t"e acceleration induced in t"e structure will be e#ual to t"e ground acceleration and t"ere will be 8ero relative displacement between t"e structure and t"e ground5 T"e structure and ground move t"e same amount5

A building t"at is perfectly fle9ible will "ave an infinite period5 :or t"is type of structure( w"en t"e ground beneat" t"e structure moves t"ere will be 8ero acceleration induced in t"e structure and t"e relative displacement between t"e structure and ground will be e#ual to t"e ground displacement5 T"e structure will not move( t"e ground will5 Increased fle9ibility increases t"e period of t"e structure

Adv nt ges of ! se isol tion

Reduced floor Acceleration and

Inter+storey 1rift Less $or no, 1amage to .tructural embers /etter 7rotection of .econdary .ystems


first evidence of arc"itects using t"e principle of base isolation for eart"#uake protection found in 7asargadae( a city in ancient 7ersia( ; <t" century /C
1eep stone and mortar foundation over w"ic" over w"ic" anot"er foundation was made wit" smoot"ed stones linked to eac" ot"er forming a plate w"ic" moves back and fort" over t"e lower foundation


4t"er ancient met"ods of isolation includes( pouring layers of soft sand or gravel under t"e foundation ( construction above a stack cut+out stones5 Timber was used under /earing 2alls w"ic" can roll on eac" ot"er and dissipate t"e eart"#uake induced energy


T"e first patent for t"e recent innovation of mec"anical isolators was released in %&=>5 e9amples of base isolation were claimed during t"e early %&>>?s $e5g5 Tokyo Imperial @otel, it was t"e %&A>?s before base isolation moved into t"e mainstream of structural engineering5 Isolation was used on bridges from t"e early %&A>?s and buildings from t"e late %&A>?s5 base isolation tec"ni#ue was first demonstrated after t"e %&&B Killari $ a"aras"tra, -art"#uake5 After t"e C>>% Bhuj $Du!arat, eart"#uake( t"e four+storey /"u! @ospital building was built wit" base isolation Tec"ni#ue5 T"e new B>>+bed "ospital was fitted wit" a New Eealand+developed lead+rubber base+ isolation system after t"e local "ospital in /"u!i was collapsed claiming appro95 %A< lives5

Isolation Devices

Elastomeric Isolators HighDamping Rubber Bearings

Sliding Isolators

Natural Rubber Bearings

LowDamping Rubber Bearings

Lead-Plug Bearings

Resilient Friction S stem

Friction Pendulum S stem

T#PES OF ISOLATORS$ El sto%e&ic !e &ing

An elastomeric bearing consists of alternating layers of rubber and steel s"ims bonded toget"er to form a unit5 Rubber layers are typically = mm to C> mm t"ick( separated by C mm or B mm t"ick steel s"ims5 T"e steel s"ims prevent t"e rubber layers from bulging and so t"e unit can support "ig" vertical loads wit" small vertical deflections -lastomeric bearings "ave been used e9tensively for many years( especially in bridges( and samples "ave been s"own to be functioning well after over *> years of service

T#PES OF ISOLATORS$ El sto%e&ic !e &ing

Natural Ru

!r B!ar"#$

Natural rubber bearing also known as laminated rubber bearing are manufactured of eit"er natural rubber or neoprene( a synt"etic rubber material famous for its toug"ness and durability w"ic" "as similar be"aviour to natural rubber5 Natural rubber bearing comprises of alternating rubber and steel s"im layers bearing is mounted between two t"ick endplates to facilitate t"e connection between t"e foundation and t"e isolation mat Natural rubber bearing generally e9"ibit a critical damping value of C+ BF5"ence re#uires additional damping devices along wit" it

7rinciple of Laminated rubber bearing

%5 Gertical direction

Rubber block

C5 @ori8ontal direction Rubber Rubber block block

Laminated rubber bearing

Laminated rubber bearing

T#PES OF ISOLATORS$ El sto%e&ic !e &ing

%!a& Ru

!r B!ar"#$
Lead rubber bearings "ave a muc" better capability to provide ade#uate stiffness for lateral loads and better damping c"aracteristics t"an t"at of rubber bearings configuration of lead rubber bearing is same as t"at of t"e natural rubber bearing e9cept t"ere is one or more cylindrical lead plugs in t"e centre of t"e arrangement as s"own in t"e figure above5 lead plug gives "ig" stiffness to t"e structure under low service and wind loads5 0nder e9treme events( lead deforms plastically reducing t"e stiffness of t"e w"ole isolation device to t"e stiffness of rubber alone5 1uring t"e plastic deformation of t"e lead plug energy is being dissipated in a "ysteretic manner5 Lead plug deforms similar as rubber but dissipates kinetic energy in t"e form of "eat( t"us reducing t"e energy absorbed by t"e building5

T#PES OF ISOLATORS$ El sto%e&ic !e &ing

H"$h 'a()"#$ Ru

!r B!ar"#$ (H'R)

@ig" damping natural rubber bearing eliminates t"e use of supplementary damping devices in case of natural rubber bearing5 assembly of "ig" damping natural rubber bearing is same as t"at of t"e natural rubber bearing but t"e type of elastomeric material used is different5 T"e increase of damping up to C>+B>F is ac"ieved t"roug" addition of fillers $carbon( oil and resins, in "ig" damping natural rubber bearings5

T#PES OF ISOLATORS$ Sliding Be &ing

.liding /earing

T"e primary advantage of sliding devices is t"eir ability to eliminate torsional effect in asymmetric structure5 T"e frictional force utilised in sliding device is e#ual to t"e a9ial force on t"e sliding device due to weig"t5 T"erefore t"e centre of gravity of a building coincides wit" t"e centre of t"e stiffness of t"e isolation system t"us eliminating t"e torsional effect in asymmetric structures5 Deneral sliding systems are impractical due to lack of restoring capability5 To overcome t"is drawback friction pendulum system $:7., is introduced w"ic" utilises a sliding interface to provide restoring stiffness and to dissipate energy5

T#PES OF ISOLATORS$ Sliding Be &ing

*R!+"l"!#t ,r"-t".# +y+t!(

resilient friction base isolator are composed of a set of metal plates w"ic" can slide on eac" ot"er wit" a central rubber core andHor perip"eral rubber cores5 To reduce t"e friction t"e sliding plates are coated wit" Teflon5 T"e rubber core "elps to distribute t"e lateral displacement and velocity along t"e "eig"t of t"e isolator5 0nder seismic loads friction damping plays t"e main role as t"e energy dissipater rat"er t"an t"e rubber material

T#PES OF ISOLATORS$ Sliding Be &ing

*/r"-t".# )!#&ulu( !ar"#$ (/0B) +y+t!(
:riction pendulum bearing combine sliding wit" pendulum action5 T"e arrangement consists of an articulated slider on a sp"erical concave c"rome surface5 T"e slider is covered wit" polis"ed bearing material suc" as Teflon5 T"e friction coffiecent between t"e surface is in t"e order of >5% for high velocity sliding and >5>* for low velocity sliding5 :7. is activated w"en eart"#uake forces e9ceed t"e value of static friction5 T"e restoring force in :7. is proportional to weig"t supported by t"e bearing and inversely proportional to t"e radius of curvature of t"e concave surface5

Types of isolators and its reliability at different eart"#uake strengt"s are studied by many researc"ers5 general t"e base isolation systems protect t"e structure from t"e effects of "ig" amplitude and "ig" fre#uency oscillations t"at fall in t"e same range as t"e natural fre#uencies of t"e structure( Lin .u ICJ Also for eart"#uakes wit" low fre#uency energy LR/ systems are not applicable as t"ey may cause undesirable amplification of ground e9citation5 Lin .u ICJ friction plays an important role in energy absorption and is t"erefore a key factor contributing to t"e effectiveness of a base isolation and R+:/I base+isolator system ( /5 C5 Lin et al5 I%>J /ase isolators are sometimes used side by side wit" damping systems5 RamalloI*J proposed adaptive base isolation system and concluded smart damper( due to its adaptive nature can reduce base drifts as well( and sometimes better( t"an t"e LR/ system w"ile simultaneously reducing structural accelerations( inter story drifts( and base s"ears5

N5 2ongprasert I=J carried out simulations of :7. and L1R system isolated models and t"e results s"owed C>F reduction in inter+storey drift5 base+isolated building increases significantly due to its impact upon t"e ad!acent structure during an eart"#uake5 igher modes of vibration are e9cited w"en impact between t"e base+ isolated building and ad!acent structure occurs5 Also stiffness of t"e ad!acent structure "as significant influence on t"e base isolated structure( Gasant A5 atsagarI%%J /ase isolation can be installed in new structures as well for retrofitting of ot"er structures5 It was confirmed by atsutaro .eki I%CJ t"at t"e base isolation tec"nology is t"e feasible retrofitting met"od in order to con#uer t"e limitation of t"e weak strengt" and t"e arc"itectural feature of t"e building5 @is studies were based on retrofitting on masonry building5

-g5 of seismically retrofitted structure( In California; 7asadena City @all( .an :rancisco City @all( LA city @all 7arliament buildings in 2ellington


e#uations of motion of t"e base+isolated system may be e9pressed

w"ere f Ksupplemental force e9erted by t"e damper or t"e LR/ lead plugL KI% >J T gives t"e position of t"e supplemental damper forceL 1Kvector w"ose elements are all unityL g Kabsolute ground accelerationL and t"e mass( damping( and stiffness matrices are( respectively(
! g

O *l nd City " ll
:irst "ig"+rise government office building in t"e 0nited .tates Tallest /uilding on t"e 2est Coast at t"e time of its construction in %&%' +BC' feet tall Riveted .teel :rame wit" infill masonry walls of brick( granite and terracotta Continuous Reinforced Concrete at foundation Isolation .ystem;
%%% rubber isolation bearings B< of t"em wit" lead cores

S n F& ncisco City " ll

T"e original design of t"e building incorporates a Msoft storyN approac" at t"e main floor( intended to dissipate energy T"is alongside ot"er discontinuities in t"e structural system make t"e dynamic c"aracteristics of t"e building unfavourable T"e /uilding was severely damaged during t"e %&=& Loma 7rieta eart"#uake

Dovernment and unicipal 4ffice( :ire .tation( 7olice .tation( /roadcasting .tation @ospital( .ocial welfare facilities Laboratory Computer Center useum( Dallery( Library

Apartment @ouse Cultural Asset( @istoric .tructure

610 CASE STU'2 0r.$ra((! u+!&; A/AO0. '!ta"l+ ., th! (.&!l: .teel frame made of *> 9 *> mm bo9 type steel beam and columns T"icknesses of t"e "ollow steel beams are %>mm /ay lengt"K < m in all ' sides

'!ta"l+ ., th! " (.&!l: <>> mm dia steel plates $B>mm t"ick, *>>mm dia rubber s"ims5$%Cnos,; CA mm t"ick

%5 C5 2ang( Pen+7o( "undementals of seismic base isolation( International training programs for seismic structures( NCR-Lin .u( Doodar8 A"madi( and Irad! D5 Tad!bak"s"L #omparative $tudy %f Base &solation $ystems' Qournal of -ngineering %&=& .aurav anarbek( $tudy of Base isolation system( T"esis work) +tec"( assac"usetts Institue of Tec"nology ec"anics( Gol5 %%*(No5 &( .eptember( B5 '5 *5 <5 A5 Trevor - )elly( .5-5 @olmes Consulting Droup Ltd5 Base &solation %f $tructures' Design *uidelines( Revision C>>% Q5 C5 RamalloL -5 A5 Qo"nson( A5 5AsceL And /5 :5 .pencer Qr5( Q5 5 :erritto(% 5Asce( ++$mart,, Base &solation $ystems, Qournal 4f -ngineering ec"anics H 4ctober C>>C

ember( $tudies %n $eismic &solation %f Buildings Qournal of .tructural -ngineering( Gol5 %%A( No5 %%( November(%&&% ember( -elative .erformance %f "ixed)Base /nd Base)&solated #oncrete "rames ( Qournal of .tructural

@5 25 ."enton ( Q Associate ember( A5 N5 Lin( -ngineering( Gol5 %%&( No5 %>( 4ctober(%&&B5

=5 N5 2ongprasert( 5 15 .ymans( Numerical -valuation of /daptive Base)&solated $tructures $ubjected to Earth0ua1e *round 2otions( Qournal 4f -ngineering ec"anics A.C-H :ebruary C>>* &5 .atis" Nagara!aia"( Andrei 5 Rein"orn( -ngineering( Gol5 %%A( No5 A( Quly( %&&% ic"alakis C5 Constantinou( Nonlinear Dynamic /nalysis %f 3)Dbase)&solated $tructures( Qournal of .tructural

%>5 /5 C5 Lin( I5 D5 Tad!bak"s"( A5 .5 7apageorgiou(and D5 A"madi( .erformance %f Earth0ua1eisolation $ystems( Qournal of -ngineering :ebruary( %&&>5

ec"anics( Gol5 %%<( No5C(

%%5 Gasant A5 atsagar( R5.5 Qangid( $eismic response of base)isolated structures during impact with adjacent structures ( 1epartment of Civil -ngineering( Indian Institute of Tec"nology /ombay( 7owai( umbai '>> >A<( India %C5 atsutaro .eki( asaaki iya8aki( Pasu"iro Tsuneki And )unio )ataoka( 2asonry $chool Building -etrofitted By Base &solation !echnology( %C2C--C>>>

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