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LARGE INTESTINE-

STRUCTURE AND
FUNCTION
STRUCTURE
Ø The term large intestine comes from the
Latin term “Intestium crassum”.
Ø It is the last part of digestive system-
final stage of the alimentary canal-in
vertebrate animals.
Ø It is about 4.9 feet long(app.5 ft) and
2.5 cm in diameter.
Ø It is about one-fifth of the whole length of
the intestinal canal.
Ø It consists of the cecum,colon,rectum and
anal canal.
Ø It starts in the right iliac region of the
pelvis ,just at or below the right waist,
where it is joined to the bottom end of the
small intestine(ileocecal junction).From
here it continues up the abdomen, then
across the width of the abdominal cavity,
and then it turns down, continuing to its
endpoint to the anus.
Ø The wall of the large intestine is lined with

COMPARING LARGE INTESTINE
WITH SMALL
 INTESTINE
Ø Large intestine is wider than small intestine and differs
in showing the longitudinal layer of the muscularis
have been reduced to 3 strap- like structures known
as y the taeniae coli.
Ø Instead of having the evaginations of the small
intestine (villi) the large intestine has invaginations
(the intestinal glands).
Ø While both the large and small intestine have goblet
cells, they are abundant in large intestine.
Ø Instead of having the evaginations of the small
intestine (villi) the large intestine ha s invaginations
(the intestinal glands).
Ø While both the large and small intestine have goblet
STRUCTURE OF LARGE INTESTINE
APPENDIX

Ø The vermiform appendix , about 8-9 cm is


attached to posteromedial surface of the
large intestine.
Ø It contains masses of lymphoid tissue.
Ø It is a part of mucosa-associated lymphoid
tissue which gives the appendix an
important role in IMMUNITY.
Ø Appendicitis is the result of a blockage that
traps infectious material in the lumen.
Ø The appendix can be removed with no
• On the surface , bands of longitudinal
muscle fibers called taeniae coli, each
about 5mm wide, can be identified.
• There are 3 bands and they start at the
base of the appendix and extend from
the cecum to the rectum. Along the
sides of the taeniae, tags of
peritoneum filled with fat, called
epiploic appendages are found. The
sacculations, called haustra, are
characteristic feature of the large
intestine and distinguish it from the
rest of the parts.
• Parts of the large intestine are:
• Cecum –it is the first part of the large
intestine.
• Taeniae coli-three bands of smooth
muscles.
• Haustra –bulges caused by
contraction of taeniae coli.
• Epiploic appendages-small fat
accumulations on the viscera.
FUNCTIONS OF LARGE INTESTINE

• The major functions of the large intestine is


to absorb water, nutrients and salts from
the partially digested food that enters
from the small intestine .
• The large intestine takes 32 hours to finish
up the remaining processes of the
digestive system. food is not broken down
any further in this stage of digestion.
• The large intestine simply absorbs vitamins
that are created by the bacteria inhabiting
the colon.
• It also absorbs water from the remaining
indigestible food matter and compacts
feces, and stores fecal matter in the
rectum until eliminated through the anus
CECUM

Ø It is the first part of the large


intestine and is where the large and
small intestines meet at the
ileocecal junction.
Ø The ileocecal junction or valve
prevents packing up of fecal
matter(stool) into the small
intestine.
Ø Attached to the cecum is tube called
appendix; it has no known use in
digestive processes.
COLON

§ The ascending colon


§ The right colic flexure(hepatic)
§ The transverse colon
§ The transverse mesocolon
§ The left colic flexure(splenic)
§ Locations along the colon are:
§ The descending colon
§ The sigmoid colon-the v-shaped region
of the large intestine
• Colon motility (the contraction of the colon
muscles and the movement of its
contents)is controlled by nerves,
hormones and impulses in the colon
muscles.
• These contractions move the contents
inside the colon toward the rectum .
During this passage, water and nutrients
are absorbed into the body and what is
left over is stool.
• The difference between the amount of fluid
entering the colon from the small intestine
and the amount of stool in the colon is
what the colon absorbs each day.
• A few times each day contractions
push the stool down the colon,
resulting in a bowel movement.
However ,if the muscles of the
colon, sphincters and pelvis do not
contract in the right way, the
contents inside the colon do not
move correctly; resulting in
abdominal pain , cramps,
constipation , a sense of
incomplete stool movement or
RECTUM

• It is a straight, muscular tube that


begins at the end of the sigmoid
colon and ends at the anal canal.
• The anal canal is the last 2-3 cm of
the digestive tract. The opening of
the anal canal to the outside is
called the anus.