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Brijesh Kumar

B.Sc. , PDGM (Marketing &


HR)
GOALS

1. To understand the important


functions of the various organ
systems
2. To acquire the ability to problem
solving and critical thinking
3. To discern the value of laboratory
equipment and procedures as
diagnostic aids
GOALS

4. To develop the attitude and habit


essential to the practice of medicine
and continuing medical education
i. Sensitivity to colleagues, society, and
patient
ii. Sensitivity to difference
iii. Sensitivity to responsibility to CME
iv. Integrity
PHYSIOLOGY

 Physiology stated broadly and


simply is the study of how
living organisms work
 It deals with the functions of
living beings and the
 Integration on how the different
organ systems work together to
accomplish complex tasks
PHYSIOLOGY

Claude Bernard
“After carrying out an analysis
of phenomena, we must
always reconstruct our
physiological synthesis so as
to see the joint action of all the
parts we have isolated.”
PHYSIOLOGY and LIFE

 Physiology deals with the


functions of living things thus it
deals with life itself
 Life is the interplay of the organism
to its environment
 It explains the physical and
chemical factors that are
responsible for the origin,
development and progression of
life
ATTRIBUTES OF THE HUMAN
BODY
1. Organization
2. Irritability
3. Contractility
4. Nutrition
5. Respiration
6. Excretion
7. Metabolism and Growth
8. Reproduction
HUMAN BODY

1. Solid component
 Cell
 Tissues - master tissues
- vegetative tissues
 Organs
 Systems
1. Liquid component
 2 Major fluid compartments
FLUID COMPARTMENTS

ECF ICF
7.4-7.45 pH 7.35-7.4
308 mOsm/L Osmolarity 308 mOsm/L

Na+, Ca++ Cations K+, Mg++


Cl- Anions PO4-
14L Volume 28L
1/3 of TBF 2/3 of TBF
ISF – 11L
Plasma – 3L
Internal Environment
HOMEOSTASIS

 The maintenance of the body


in a stse of relative constancy
in the internal environment
 CONTROL SYSTEM – works on
1. Cellular level
2. Organismal level
3. Throughout the entire body
CHARACTERISTICS

1. Reflex in nature
2. Operates on a feedback
mechanism, mostly (-); rarely
(+)
3. Amplification or Gain
4. Oscillation – driving, waxing,
damped
CELL and its FUNCTIONS

 Cells, like the human body has


1. Division of labor
2. Specialization
3. Mutual interaction
4. Centralized control
 Cell – basic living unit of the body
1. Nucleus
2. Cytoplasm
PROTOPLASM

The different substances that make


up the cell. It is composed of
1. Water – principal fluid medium
2. Electrolytes
- Major cations and
3. Proteins anions
- Next to water, most
4. Lipids-Phospholipids
abundant
and cholesterol
5. Carbohydrates
-Triglycerides and natural fats
- 2 types
- Little structural
a.Structural
function
PHYSICAL STRUCTURE of the
CELL
 Contains highly organized
physical structures called
Organelles
 Covered with a membrane are
the nucleus, endoplasmic
reticulum, mitochondria,
lysosomes, and Golgi
apparatus
CELL MEMBRANE

 It envelopes the cell


 It is composed mostly of
1. Proteins – 55%
2. Lipids – 42%
Phospholipids – 25%
Cholesterol – 13%
Other Lipids – 4%
1. Carbohydrates – 3%
CELL MEMBRANE
1. Lipid Membrane
- Basic structure is a bilayer
a. Phospholipid part
1. Hydrophilic part
- Water soluble
- Consists of the head group
- Phosphate portion
1. Hydrophobic part
- Fat soluble
- Consists of the 2 chain group
- Fatty acyl portion
CELL MEMBRANE
Phospholipid Bilayer
 Primarily responsible for the
passive permeability properties
of the membrane
 Choline containing
 lecithin (phosphatidylcholine)
 Sphingomyelin
 Aminophospholipids
 Phosphatidylserine
 Phosphatidylethanolamine
CELL MEMBRANE

 Others
 Phosphatidylglycerol
 Phosphatidylinositol
 cardiolipin

 Cholesterol

 Glycolipids
LIPID BILAYER

Features
1. It is fluid and not solid so portions of
the membrane can flow literally from
one point to another
2. Substances dissolved or floating in the
lipid bilayer diffuse to all areas of the
cell membrane
3. Lipid soluble substances easily cross
the lipid bilayer
4. Water soluble substances do not
dissolve in the lipid bilayer; they cross
the membrane through water-filled
channels, pores, or carriers
2 MEMBRANE PROTEINS

a. Mostly Glycoproteins
b. Fibronectin – integrins
2 types of Proteins
1. Integral proteins
2. Peripheral proteins
MEMBRANE PROTEINS

Functions
1. Anchor
2. Pumps
3. Carriers
4. Ion channels
5. Receptors
6. Enzymes
7. Antibody processing
MEMBRANE CARBOHYDRATES

 They are referred to as the cell


Glycocalyx
 In combination with lipids –
glycolipids
 With proteins - glycoproteins
MEMBRANE CARBOHYDRATES

Functions
1. Bring (-) charge to the cell
2. Attachment of one cell to the other
3. Act as receptor substances for
binding hormones
4. Immune reactions or antigens
CYTOPLASM and its
ORGANELLES
 Cytosol is the clear fluid of the
cytoplasm where the particles are
dispersed
 It contains mainly dissolved proteins,
electrolytes and glucose, secretory
granules and the organelles
1. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
a. Granular ER
b. Agranular ER
2. Golgi Apparatus
3. Lysosomes
ORGANELLES

4. Peroxisomes
5. Mitochondria
Other structures include:
a. Filaments
• 13 tubulin protofilaments
• Myosin I, II, MTOCs
a. Tubules
∀ α ,β ,δ tubulins
• Kinesia
• Dynein
a. nucleus
INTERCELLULAR
CONNECTIONS
1. Tight Junctions
 Tight
 Leaky
1. Gap Junctions
CELLULAR TRANSPORT
SYSTEM
A. Transport across but NOT through
Membranes
1. Endocytosis
 Energy requiring
 Receptor-ligand complex
 Sample:cholesterol & LDL receptors
 V-SNARES and T-SNARES
 2 forms: pinocytosis
phagocytosis
1. Exocytosis
CELLULAR TRANSPORT
SYSTEM
B. Cellular Transport through
Membranes
1. Diffusion
 No energy needed
 Downhill
 2 pathways
 Through intermolecular intertices
 Through channels or transport
proteins
RATE OF DIFFUSION

Determined by:
1. Amount of substance available
2. Velocity of kinetic motion
3. Range of diffusion – distance
and time
4. Member of openings in the
membrane
DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT

Diffusion Coefficient = D
Proportional to the speed with which
the diffusing molecule can move in
the surrounding medium
 Size of molecule
 Small molecule 1/(MW1/2)
 Larger molecule 1/(MW1/3)
 Spherical molecule
 Viscosity of the medium
Stokes – Einstein Equation

D= KT / 6π rη

Fick’s Law of Diffusion

J = (-) DA (∆ c/ ∆ x)
DIFFUSION PERMEABILITY
of the C ELLULAR MEMBRANE
1. Permeable to lipid-soluble molecules
2. Impermeable to water-soluble molecule
 Ions are also relatively insoluble in lipid
solvents; diffusion is through protein
channels:
a. Ion specific
b. Allows small ions only
c. Others – diameter, shape, charge
a. Ion channels are controlled by:
a. Voltage difference
b. Chemical or ligand-gated
CELLULAR TRANSPORT THROUGH
MEMBRANE
Osmosis
 Semi-permeable membrane
 Osmotic pressure
 Van’t Hoff’s Law of O.P.
π = RT (φ ic)

Isoosmotic Solutions
 Hypoosmotic
 Hyperosmotic
PREDICTORS OF VOLUME
CHANGES
1. The steady-state volume of the cell
is determined only by the
concentration of impermeant
solutes in the ECF
2. Permeant solutes cause only
transient changes in cell volume
3. The greater the permeabilty of the
membranes to the permeant solute,
the more rapid the time course
TRANSPORT THROUGH MEMBRANES
Protein-Mediated Transport
Properties
1. More rapid transport
2. Shows saturation kinetics
3. Mediating protein has chemical specificity
4. Structurally related molecules may
compete for transport
5. Transport may be inhibited by compounds
that are not structurally related
 In the form of carrier proteins or transporters or
channels
TRANSPORT THROUGH MEMBRANES
Facilitated Transport System
 Movement of solutes from an area of higher
concentration to an area of lower
concentration with the use of transporters
 No energy required
 Can’t move substances against a
concentration gradient
 They act to equalize concentrations of the
transported substance on the 2 sides of the
membrane
 Show saturation kinetics
 Phloretin inhibits sugar uptake while insulin
stimulates it
ACTIVE TRANSPORT

1. With the use of Transporters


2. With the use of channels
a. Voltage
b. Ligand-gated
Types:
1. Primary
2. Secondary
a. Cotransport – symport
b. Countertransport - antiport
OTHER MEMBRANE TRANSPORT
PROCESSES
1. Ion-transporting ATPases
3 Major classes
1. P-type
2. V-type
3. F-type
1. Ca++ transport
Ca++ ATPase
Calmodulin
1. Na+-Ca++ exchanger
OTHER MEMBRANE TRANSPORT
PROCESSES
4. Na+-H+ exchanger
5. Anion exchanger
6. Na+,K+,Cl- cotransport
7. Facilitated Transport of Glucose
8. Amino Acid Transport
9. ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters
a. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR)
b. Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) Transporter
TRANSPORT ACROSS
EPITHELIA
 Epithelia are polarized
 Transport properties differ from
one side to the other side of
membrane
 With tight and leaky junctions
 2 types of pathways
1. Transcellular
2. Paracellular
Thank You