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What do you know about Hydrology?

Hydro + logy
indicating or relating to water, liquid, or fluid Science; theory; study

Hydrology
Hydrology means the science of water and it deals with the Occurrence Circulation & of water of the earth and earths atmosphere Distribution

In general hydrology is a very broad subject of an inter-disciplinary nature drawing support from allied sciences such as: Meteorology phenomena of the atmosphere, especially weather and weather conditions The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of the earth Geology Statistics Chemistry Physics & Fluid mechanics

Application of Engineering Hydrology


Estimation of water resources Study of processes such as: Precipitation Runoff Evapotranspiration & their interaction Study of problems such as: Floods & droughts Strategies to combat them Design & operation of water resources engineering projects such as: Irrigation Water supply Flood control Water power & Navigation

Hydrologic Cycle
Water occurs on the earth in all three states (liquid, solid and gaseous) and in various degree of motion. Some example of dynamic aspects of water are: Evaporation of water from water bodies (oceans, lakes) Formation and movement of clouds, rain and snowfall Stream flow & groundwater movement The various aspects of water related to the earth can be explained in terms of a cycle known as the Hydrologic Cycle

The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle or the H2O cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

Process involved during water cycle / Terms


Evapotranspiration Respiration Condensation Precipitation Runoff Infiltration Percolation
is a combination of evaporation and transpiration. Small amounts of water are retained and held by animals.

Condensation is the process by which water vapor in the air is change into liquid water. Precipitation is water released from clouds in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail. the flow of water, from rain, snow melt, or other sources, over land

Groundwater

the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil infiltration is the amount of water from the surface of soil into soil, wherea the percolation is the amount of water crossing the water table.. water located beneath the earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

Process involved during water cycle / Terms

Evapotranspiration
Condensation Runoff Infiltration Percolation Groundwater
Transpiration

Evaporation

Respiration

the flow of water, from rain, snow melt, or other sources, over land

the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil infiltration is the amount of water from the surface of soil into soil, wherea the percolation is the amount of water crossing the water table.. water located beneath the earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

Precipitation
Precipitation is water released from clouds in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail.

Evaporation

Evaporation is the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas or vapor.
Transpiration

Transpiration is the process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere.
Evapotranspiration

is a combination of evaporation and transpiration.

Respiration
Small amounts of water are retained and held by animals.

Condensation
Condensation is the process by which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water.

Runoff
the flow of water, from rain, snow melt, or other sources flow over land. Also know as surface flow or overland flow.

Infiltration
infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil

Percolation
Percolation the downward movement of water through the unsaturated zone (USGS). The movement under hydrostatic pressure of water through the interstices of a rock or soil

Interflow
interflow is the lateral movement of water in the unsaturated zone, that first returns to the surface or enters a stream prior to becoming groundwater.

Baseflow
Baseflow is the portion of stream flow that comes from "the sum of deep subsurface flow and delayed shallow subsurface flow.

Precipitation Clouds Sun


1

Snow

2 3 4

Precipitation
Evaporation from ocean

Groundwater (8)
7 8

5 6 8

6 0

0 = Evaporation from ocean 9 1 = Raindrop evaporation 2 = Interception 3 = Transpiration 4 = Evaporation from land 5 = Evaporation from water bodies 6 = Surface runoff / Stream flow

Rock

Pervious material

7 = Infiltration 8 = Ground water 9 = Deep percolation

Importance of Hydrological Cycle


Helps to study the science of hydrology in a systematic way
Because life on Earth depends on the constant presence of water in its various forms. The water cycle keeps clean water moving constantly, replenishing the environment

Water-Budget Equation (Hydrologic Equation)


The continuity equation for water in various phases is expressed as:
M i M o S

Mass inflow Mass outflow Change in mass storage

Expression of water budget equation for a catchment:


P SR G E T S

where
P = Precipitation SR = Surface runoff G = Net groundwater flow out of the catchment E = Evaporation T = Transpiration S = Change in storage Note: All terms in the water budget equation must have consistent units (volume or depth over the catchment area). In hydrologic calculations volumes are often expressed as average depths over the catchment area.

Residence time
The average duration of a particle of water to pass through a phase of the hydrologic cycle is known as the residence time of that phase. Residence time for a phase:

Volume of water in a phase Tr Average flow rate in the phase


Residence times rates of hydrologic activity are measured in term of the average amount of time that water remains in its various states or reservoirs. For example, the mean residence time of a water molecule in the atmosphere is very short, usually from days to a week or two. Water may be stored for months to years in soil water and individual water molecules may remain in deep groundwater, glaciers and ocean basins for decades to 10,000 or more years.

Estimated World Water Quantities Item Ocean Ground water (a) Fresh (b) Saline Soil moisture Polar ice Other ice and snow Lakes (a) Fresh (b) Saline Marshes Rivers Biological water Atmospheric water Total: (a) All kinds of water (b) Fresh water Area (M km2) 361.3 134.8 134.8 82.0 16.0 0.3 1.2 0.8 2.7 148.8 510.0 510.0 510.0 148.8 Volume (M km3) 1338.0 10.530 12.870 0.0165 24.0235 0.3406 0.0910 0.0854 0.01147 0.00212 0.00112 0.01290 1386.0 35.0 % total water 96.5 0.76 0.93 0.0012 1.7 0.025 0.007 0.006 0.0008 0.0002 0.0001 0.001 100.0 2.5 % fresh water 30.1 0.05 68.6 1.0 0.26 0.03 0.006 0.003 0.04

100.0

Source: World Water Balance & Water Resources Of The Earth. UNESCO 1975

Global Annual Water Balance Item Area (M km2) Precipitation (km3/year) (mm/year) Evaporation (km3/year) (mm/year) Runoff to ocean Rivers (km3/year) Groundwater (km3/year) Total runoff (km3/year) (mm/year) Ocean 361.30 458,000 1270 505,000 1400 Land 148.8 119,000 800 72,000 484 44,700 2,200 47,000 316

Source: World Water Balance & Water Resources Of The Earth. UNESCO 1975

Water Balance of Continents (mm/year) Continent Africa Asia Australia Europe N. America S. America Area Precipitation (M km2) P 30.3 45.0 8.7 9.8 20.7 17.8 686 726 736 734 670 1648 Total Runoff as Evapor runoff % of P ation 139 293 226 319 287 583 20 40 30 43 43 34 547 433 510 415 383 1065

Source: World Water Balance & Water Resources Of The Earth. UNESCO 1975

Water Balance of Oceans (mm/year) Ocean Area (M km2) Precpt. Inflow from adjacent continents 200 230 70 60 Evapo. Water exchange with other oceans -60 350 -300 130

Atlantic Arctic Indian Pacific

107 12 75 167

780 240 1010 1210

1040 120 1380 1140

Source: World Water Balance & Water Resources Of The Earth. UNESCO 1975

Hydrological Data
Weather records (temperature, humidity & wind speed) Precipitation data Evaporation & transpiration data Stream-flow records Infiltration characteristics of an area / catchment Groundwater characteristics Physical & geological characteristics of the area

Example 1:
A lake has a water surface elevation of 103.2 m above datum at the beginning of a certain month. In that month the lake received an average inflow of 6.0 m3/s from surface runoff sources. In the same period the outflow from the lake had an average value of 6.5m3/s. Further in that month, the lake received a rainfall of 145 mm and the evaporation from the lake surface was estimated as 6.10 cm. Write the water budget equation for the lake and calculate the water surface elevation of the lake at the end of the month. The average lake surface area can be taken as 5000 ha. Assume that there is no contribution to or from the ground water storage.

Solution:
For a time period t the water budget for the lake can be written as:

I t P A Q t E A S
Where: I = average inflow rate Q = average outflow rate P = precipitation E = Evaporation A = surface are of the lake S = change in lake storage volume t = time

Input volume Output volume = Change in storage

Here, t = 1 month = 30x24x (60x60) = 2.592x106 s =2.592 M s In one month


3 Inflow volume = I t = 6.0 x 2.592 = 15.552 M m 3 Outflow volume = Q t = 6.5 x 2.592 = 16.848 M m

Input due to precipitation = PA =

145 x 5000 x100 x 100 1000 x10 6


3

= 7.25 M m 6.10 5000 x100 x 100 Outflow due to evaporation = EA = x 100 10 6 = 3.05 M m
3

Hence, S = (15.552+7.25) (16.848+3.05) = 2.904 M m3 S 2.904 x 10 6 Change in elevation z = A 5000 x100 x100 = 0.058 m (+ve) New water surface elevation at the end of the month (above datum)

=103.200+ 0.058 =103.258 m


5000 Hectares into Square Meters Result: 50,000,000

References
1. Elizabeth M. Shaw (1989). Engineering Hydrology Techniques in Practice. John Wiley & Sons. 2. Ray K., Linsley, Jr., Max A. Hohler. (1988). Hydrology for Engineers. Mc Graw Hill. 3. Roberson, JA. Cassidy, JJ. Chaudhry MH. (1998). Hydraulic Engineering. John Wiley & Sons. 4. Richard H. McCune (1998). Hydraulic Analysis and Design. Prentice Hall. 5. Subramanya K. (1996). Engineering Hydrology. Tata McGraw-Hill.