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Planul ntlnirilor:

1. Design-ul de cercetare 2. ntrebri de cercetare i ipoteze 3. Metode de analiz statistic. Crearea de baze de date n SPSS

1. Design-ul cercetrii

Alston&Bowles, 2003

Alston & Bowles, 2003

Tematica -Research in Social Work (Alston & Bowles, 2003)

Tipuri de cercetare:

Cercetare descriptiv Cercetare exploratorie Cercetare aciune (action research) McNeil & Chapman, 2005

Cercetarea de asisten social


Trebuie s apar dintr-o teoretizare particular a subiectului n contextul su social, economic, politic. Ar trebui s duc la o intervenie ce ar putea constitui o schimbare constructiv Ar trebui s fie o cercetare ce asigur participarea celor studiai sracii, vulnerabilii, opresaii i a celor ce lucreaz cu ei (Mc Dermott, 1996)

Research Strategy vs. Types of research

consider your main research questions/objectives and reflect on which research strategy best meets your needs. In short, a survey is used when you are seeking representative views; experimental strategy is required when you are interested in causal relationships; historical research for events that occurred in the past; a case study when you seek an in-depth, investigative study

(Biggam, 2008)

The research strategy refers to your over-arching approach to your empirical research, and there are a number of tried and tested strategies to choose from, examples of which include: case study, survey, ethnographic, experimental, historical, action research, and grounded theory. You must identify your research strategy, describe it and explain why it is appropriate to your research. The question of whether your research is quantitative or qualitative in nature, or a mixture of both, depends not on your choice of research strategy alone but on the combination of your research strategy + research objectives + data collection techniques.

(Biggam, 2008)

Concepte:
Metodologia: Cadru asociat cu un set particular de asumpii paradigmatice ce va fi folosit pentru cercetare (metoda tiinific, etnografie, cercetarea aciune) Metoda: modalitate general de abordare a realitii (cantitative, calitative, combinate) Tehnicile ce vor fi folosite pentru culegerea datelor (experiment, anchet etc.) Instrumentele: Sunt mijloacele ce vor fi folosite pentru culegerea datelor (chestionar, ghid de interviu etc) Designul metodologic: planul cercetrii ce cuprinde tot ce este mai sus.

(Biggam, 2008)

OLeary 2004 TABLE 1.3 WADING THROUGH METHOD


How do I understand the world? This is the land of isms. It is the set of assumptions that define an intellectual understanding of how the world operates and how knowledge is produced, i.e.: Positivism the view that all true knowledge is scientific, and can be pursued by scientific method Empiricism belief that all concepts are derived from sense-experience Interpretivism acknowledges and explores the cultural and historical interpretations of the social world Constructivism claims that meaning does not exist in its own right; rather it is constructed by human beings as they interact and engage in interpretation Subjectivism emphasizes the subjective elements in experience and accepts that personal experiences are the foundation for factual knowledge.

What methodological approach will best answer my questions? This is the strategy or set of procedures used to gather and analyze data. It is often paradigm and discipline driven, and covers a diverse range of approaches. Some of the more common methodological approaches used in the social and applied sciences are: Scientific method methodological procedure that consists of: developing a theory that is consistent with observations; using the theory to make predictions (hypothesis) and to test those predictions Ethnography exploration of cultural groups in a bid to understand, describe, and interpret a way of life from the point of view of its participants Phenomenology description of a phenomenon as it presents itself in direct awareness. Phenomenology disregards historical or social contexts Ethnomethodology study of the methods that individuals use to make sense of their social world and accomplish their daily actions Action research a research strategy that pursues action and knowledge in an integrated fashion through a cyclical and participatory means.

What are the methods or techniques that I will use to collect my data? These methods get down to the nitty gritty of data collection and can be used in conjunction with any of the methodological approaches discussed above.

Interviewing asking questions and listening to individuals in order to obtain information or opinions Surveying questioning or canvassing a wide array of people in order to obtain information or opinions Document analysis exploring written documents for content and/or themes Observation can be removed or participant and involves the recognition and recording of facts, situations, occurrences, and empathetic understanding.

What type of data will I be collecting? There is a plethora of literature on quantitative and qualitative methods, but in actuality, quantitative and qualitative refers to types of data not method. There are plenty of methods in fact, all of those listed above that can collect data of both a quantitative and qualitative nature. Quantitative data numerical data; can be naturally occurring numbers, i.e. age/income, or data that is numerically coded, i.e. female = 1, male = 2 Qualitative data data collected as words and/or images not numerically coded for analysis.

How will I analyze my data? quantitative and qualitative data demand distinct treatment with quantitative data analyzed statistically and qualitative data analyzed thematically. Statistical analysis can be descriptive (to summarize the data), or inferential (to draw conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data) Thematic analysis can include analysis of words, concepts, literary devices, and/or non-verbal cues. Includes content, discourse, narrative, and conversation analysis; semiotics; hermeneutics; and grounded theory techniques.

Alegerea unei strategii de cercetare: ce ntrebri s punem


Pot s generalizez ca rezultat al muncii mele empirice? Ce eforturi trebuie sa fac pentru a ma asigura ca lucrarea este eliberata de bias-uri? (E.g. if you know the research subjects for instance, they may be fellow students whom you wish to interview what mechanisms have you set in place so that your views of them and, equally, their views of you, do not influence your findings?) (Biggam, 2008)

Delimitarea studiului:

Scopul studiului Perioada de timp acoperit Aria geografic acoperit Variabile ce vor fi studiate Indicatori specifici Tipul i mrimea populaiei studiate Instrumente de culegere a datelor

Triangulaia sau mixed methods


Msurri multiple ale aceluiai fenomen Triangulaia teoriilor: perspective teoretice multiple Triangulaia metodelor: combinarea de stiluri multiple (de ex: cantitative i calitative)

Tipuri de studii:
1. 2. 3. 4. Exploratorii Descriptive Analitice i cauzale Studii de caz

1. Studiile exploratorii sunt folosite cnd nu se tie foarte mult despre situaie, nu sunt informaii disponibile despre cum au fost rezolvate probleme similare n trecut Exemplu: Care este specificul populaiei vulnerabile de pa Pata Rt?

2. Studiul descriptiv: este folosit pentru a descrie o situaie, o populaie specific, un fenomen. Exemplu: Care este tipologia familiilor mutate de pe str. Coastei la Pata Rt? Ne intereseaz descrierea populaiei dup vrst, gen, relaii familiale, ocupaie etc. i compararea cu alte populaii specifice sau generale.

ntrebrile descriptive sau descrierea problemei:


Rspundei la urmtoarele ntrebri: Care este incidena fenomenului? Ce procentaj (din populaie, din grupurile specifice) a trecut prin eveniment, manifest problema respetiv etc. Care este prevalena fenomenului? n medie, (pentru ntreaga populaie, pentru grupuri specifice) care este numrul de evenimente, manifestri ale problemei etc. Care este severitatea? Ct de grav/serios se manifest fenomenul. Ct timp trece pn apare fenomenul? (timpul pn la, latency)

3. Testarea de ipoteze Testarea ipotezelor presupune explicarea de relaii specifice, sau stabilirea de diferene dintre grupuri sau independena a doi sau mai muli factori. Testarea ipotezelor este folosit pentru a explica natura anumitor relaii sau pentru a prezice anumite rezultate

Componentele unui studiu cauzal principalele componente: Studiul cauzal: presupune ntrebri descriptive i ntrebri relaionale - presupun 2 variabile de interes: cauza i efectul
Cauza: eveniment (divorul prinilor), program (participarea ntr-un program cu scop precis n nchisoare). Diferene ntre cauze ce pot fi controlate de cercettor i ce nu pot fi controlate de cercettor (ex: contextul). Efectul de cele mai multe ori este vorba despre rezultatele ce ne intereseaz. Unitatea de analiz: individ sau instituie? Eantionarea Efectul cum l msurm ? Designul cercetrii: efectul este (de obicei) determinat prin comparaie (condiii alternative)

4. Studiul de caz Implic analize contextuale, de adncime Cteodat sunt considerate i tehnici de rezolvare de probleme sau de intervenie. Metode calitative ce folosesc experiena anterioar de rezolvare de probleme pentru situaii actuale.

Unitatea de analiz
La ce nivel sunt agregate datele? Individ Diade Grupuri Organizaii Culturi

Timpul: Studii transversale i longitudinale


1. Studii transversale Datele sunt colectate la un anumit moment n timp, pe o anumit perioad. Exemplu: sondajele de opinie 2. Studii longitudinale Datele sunt colectate la mai multe momente n timp. Exemplu: testrile de-a lungul anui an de studiu

OLeary (2004)

ntrebri
1 Ce factori pot influena cercetarea? 2 Care sunt paii n procesul de cercetare? 3 n ce mod procesul de cercetare calitativ difer de cea cantitativa ? 4 Cum difer metodele de culegere a datelor n cercetarea cantiativ i cea calitativ ? 5 Ce tipuri de metode de analiz pot fi folosite n abordarea cantitativ? Dar n cea calitativ?

Eantionarea

Sampling

(Alston & Bowles, 2003)

Data Collection

Carti despre SPSS la biblioteca de sociologie Babbie Earl R., Halley Fred, Zaino Jeanne, Adventures in social research : data analysis using SPSS for Windows 95/98. Thousand Oaks, Calif : Pine Forge Press, 2000. Buiga Anua, Statistic inferenial : aplicaii n SPSS. ClujNapoca : Todesco, 2009. Jaba Elisabeta, Grama Ana, Analiza statistica cu SPSS sub Windows. Iasi : Polirom, 2004. Kirkpatrick Lee A., Feeney Brooke C., A simple guide to SPSS for Windows : for versions 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, and 11.0. Australia ; Belmont, California : Thomson Wadsworth, 2003. Pah Iulian, Introducere n SPSS. Cluj-Napoca : Eikon, 2004. Pah Iulian, Tehnici de analiz a datelor cu SPSS. Cluj-Napoca : Presa Universitar Clujean, 2004. Pomohaci Cristian-Mihai, Lungu Cosmin, OpenOffice i SPSS cu aplicaii n sociologie i psihologie. Bucureti : C. H. Beck, 2010.