=
S
v n
D
8
3
2
1
3
5
.
. . 4
(
(
=
S
Q n
D
t
V = velocity (m/sec)
Q = flow rate (m
3
/sec.)
R = hydraulic radius (m)
S = slope of the energy grade line
n = Mannings roughness coefficient
D = Diameter of the pipe
Properties of circular sewer section
Flow through sewer is open channel flow
Parameters of interest are
Breadth of flow (b)
Depth of flow (d)
Diameter of the sewer (D)
Breadth of flow is needed for the calculation
of the risk of H
2
S generation
Derived parameters
Angle of flow (u) in radians
Area of flow (a)
Wetted perimeter (P)
Escritts definition of hydraulic radius (a/p)
t u 2
360
N
f low of Angle = =

.

\

=
D
d
2 1 cos 2
1
u

.

\

=
2
sin
u
D b

.

\

=
8
sin
2
u u
D a
2
D
P u =
A few important terms
u
d
D
p
b
a
a is area of flow
b is breadth of flow
d is depth of flow
D is sewer diameter
p is wetted perimeter
u is angle of flow in radians
(2t radians = 360)
a/p is hydraulic radius r
d/D is proportional depth of flow
Here,
8
) sin (
2 2
u u
= = D D k a
a
2
u
D p =
( )
2
sin
u
D b =
( ) ( )  
u
u sin
1
4
= =
D
D k r
r
( )  
D
d
2 1 cos
2
= u
( )
t
u u
2
sin
=
A
a
u
u sin
1 =
R
r
Tables are available in sewerage design manuals for reading ka, kr, a/A, r/R, and also v/V
and q/Q for different d/D values
Hydraulic radius (r) = area of flow / wetted
perimeter
d/D for simplified sewerage is 0.20.8
<0.2 do not ensure sufficient velocity for preventing
solids deposition in the sewer
>0.8 do not allow sufficient ventilation
For any known d/D, angle of flow can be found
From angle of flow, area of flow, hydraulic radius
and breadth of flow can be found
For d/D=0.2, Ka and Kr values are 0.1118 and
0.1206 respectively
For d/D=0.8, Ka and Kr values are 0.6736 and
0.3042 respectively
Properties of circular sewer section

.

\

=
u
u Sin D
r 1
4
2
D K a
a
=
D K r
r
=
( ) u u Sin K
a
=
8
1

.

\

=
u
u Sin
K
r
1
4
1
2
D
P u =
Mannings equation
2
1
3
2
1
i r
n
V =
v is velocity (m/s)
n is Mannings roughness coefficient
r is hydraulic radius
i is sewer gradient
a is flow cross sectional area (m2)
q is flow rate (m3/s)
Flow velocity is proportional to hydraulic radius which in turn to d/D
2
1
3
2
1
i r
n
a aV q = =
From writing Mannings equation for partial flow and full flow
taking ratio one can obtain v/V and q/Q as
( )
3
2
3
2
sin
1
(
= =
u
u
R
r
V
v
( )( )
( )
3
2
3
2
sin
1
2
sin
(
= =
u
u
t
u u
R
r
A
a
Q
q
u is a function of d/D
v/V and q/Q vary with d/D
v=V for d/D=0.5
v/V is maximum (1.14) when d/D is around 0.81
q/Q is maximum (1.07) when d/D is around 0.94
GaucklerManning Equation
V is flow velocity (m/sec.)
n is roughness coefficient, taken as 0.013
for PVC, vitrified clay and even for
concrete sewers
The bacterial slime layer makes the
roughness almost same for all the
materials
i is sewer slope or gradient
q is sewage flow rate (m
3
/sec.)
2
1
3
2
1
i r
n
v =
2
1
3
2
1
i ar
n
va q = =
2
1
3
2
2
) (
1
i D K D K
n
q
r a
=
( )
2 2
.
8
1
D Sin D K a
a
u u = =
D
Sin
D K r
r
. 1
4
1

.

\

= =
u
u

.

\

=
D
d
2 1 cos 2
1
u
8
3
2
1
4
1
8
3
8
3


.

\

=
i
q
K K n D
r a
2
3
8
3
2


.

\

=
D K K
nq
i
r a
Tractive Tension (boundary shear stress)
Tangential force exerted by the flowing
sewage per unit wetted boundary
area
Denoted by t and units are N/m
2
or
Pascals, Pa
Obtained by dividing weight component
of the flowing sewage in the flow
direction by the wetted boundary
area of the sewer
L P
Sin gaL
L P
Sin W
.
.
.
.  
t = =
Di gK grSin
r
 t = =
i K g
D
r
1


.

\

=
t
2
1
3
2
2
) (
1
i D K D K
n
q
r a
=
6
13
3
8
2
1


.

\

= i
g
K K
n
q
r a
t
13
6
13
16
13
6
2
1


.

\


.

\

= q
g
K K
n
i
r a
t
W is weight of sewage
L is sewer length
is density of sewage
a is area of flow
 is sewer inclination angle
since  is very small sin =tan 
tan  is the sewer slope (i)
Design of the sewer
Find initial and final (at the start and at the end of the design
period) peak sewage flow rates
If the flow is <1.5 L/Sec., then use 1.5 L/Sec. as peak flow
Using the initial peak sewage flow rate, for the minimum tractive
tension required, find minimum slope required
K
a
and K
r
should correspond to d/D = 0.2 at which tractive tension
is minimum
Required tractive tension for simplified sewers is 1 Pa
For sanitary sewers it is 12 Pa and for storm sewers and combined
sewers it is 34 Pa
PW k k q
2 1
=
13
6
13
16
13
6
2
1


.

\


.

\

= q
g
K K
n
i
r a
t
Design of the sewer
Find sewer diameter using the GaucklerManning equation
Here final peak sewage flow rate is taken as q
Ka and Kr values corresponding to d/D=0.8 are considered
The sewer diameters calculated may not be always commercially
available then chose the next larger diameter sewer
commercially available
Minimum sewer diameter considered in simplified sewerage is 100
mm
8
3
2
1
4
1
8
3
8
3


.

\

=
i
q
K K n D
r a
Surface Material Manning's  n 
Asbestos cement 0.011
Asphalt 0.016
Brass 0.011
Brickwork 0.015
Castiron, new 0.012
Clay tile 0.014
Concrete  steel forms 0.011
Concrete finished 0.012
Concrete  wooden forms 0.015
Concrete  centrifugally spun 0.013
Galvanized iron 0.016
Glass 0.010
Gravel 0.029
Masonry 0.025
Metal corrugated 0.022
Plastic 0.009
Polyethylene PE  Corrugated with smooth inner walls 0.009  0.015
Polyethylene PE  Corrugated with corrugated inner walls 0.018  0.025
Polyvinyl Chloride PVC  with smooth inner walls 0.009  0.011
Steel  Coaltar enamel 0.010
Steel  smooth 0.012
Self cleansing velocity
In a sewer sufficient velocity (self cleansing velocity) should be developed
on a regular basis ensuring self cleansing
Selfcleansing velocity can be found by Camps formula
SG is specific gravity of the particle
d
p
is particle size
K
s
is constant and its value is taken as 0.8
Recommended selfcleansing velocity is 0.6 m/sec.
Ensures transport of sand particles of 0.09 mm size and 2.65 specific
gravity without allowing settling
For preventing deposition of sand and gravel 0.75 m/sec. velocity is
recommended
Selfcleansing velocity of 0.8 m/sec. at design peak flow and 0.6
m/sec. at present peak flow are often suggested
Velocity in the sewer is recommended not to exceed 3 m/sec. for avoiding
damage to sewers from erosion
Flow velocity for the present peak flow should be >0.6 m/sec. and for the
design peak flow it should be <3.0 m/sec.
( )  
2
1
6
1
1
1
p S
d SG K R
n
V =
Slope and diameter of sewers
For sewers running partially full for a given flow and slope,
flow velocity is little influenced by pipe diameter
Slope of sewer is first fixed for the present peak flow, then
pipe diameter is decided on the basis of design peak flow and
permissible depth of flow
For ensuring a minimum velocity of 0.6 m/sec., slope of the
sewer can be
Minimum practical slope considered for construction is 1 in
1250
S.No. Present peak flow (LPS) Slope
1. 2 6 in 1000
2. 3 4 in 1000
3. 5 3.1 in 1000
4. 10 2 in 1000
5. 15 1.3 in 1000
6. 20 1.2 in 1000
7. 30 1.0in 1000
Sewer ventilation
Sewers are preferably run partially full (d/D <0.8) for
facilitating ventilation
Sewer ventilation is needed to avoid
Dangers of asphyxiation of maintenance personnel
Buildup of odorous gases
Development of explosive mixture of sewer gases
(methane and oxygen)
Hydrogen sulfide can be generated in the sewer
specially when laid at minimum slope
H2S can cause odour problems, precipitates trace metals
as sulfides, and deteriorates cement containing materials
Design computations
Accurate and detailed map of the area to be covered by the
sewerage system
Scale of the map can be 25 m = 1 cm (maps of 5 m = 1 cm are
also often needed
Location of streets, alleys, highways, railroads, public buildings,
parks, streams/drains, ditches, etc., features should be
identified on the map
Accurate elevations of street center lines at every 15 m distance
and elevation at all locations of abrupt surface slope changes
Decide on the layout of the sewer line
Draw the sewer map
Identify, locate and number the manholes on the sewer map
and code the sewers
Locations of change of direction, sewer junctions, and upper ends
of the sewers can have manholes
Manholes can be provided at regular distances (30 m 120 m)
Design computations
Find surface elevation of the upstream and downstream
ends of each of the sewer
Identify the local tributary area for each of the sewer
Find the present and the design population equivalents of
the local tributary areas
Find present and design average and peak sewage flow for
the local tributary area
Collect additional information for the right of the way of the
sewer line
Profiles of all existing and proposed streets, alleys and
potential rightofways
Location of surface and subsurface utilities like water
mains, electrical conduits, communication lines, and other
underground structures
Soil data upto 1.5 m below the bottom of proposed sewer
Prepare sewer design computation table
Sewer design computation table
This can be an excel worksheet and include
Columns identifying the sewers and summerizing basic data
Sewer code and upstream and downstream manhole numbers
Sewer length
Local (tributary) area, its present and design population, and its
present and design average and peak sewage flow
Present and design average and peak flows from commercial,
institutional and industrial activities of the local (tributary) area
Infiltration allowance for the sewer length
Surface elevation at the upstream and downstream sewer ends
Columns showing cumulative present average flow and peak
flow and average and peak flow at the end of design period
Columns showing computed slope and diameter of the sewer
and Q
full
Sewer design computation table
Columns showing hydraulic elements for the present and the
design peak flows when Mannings n is variable
d/D corresponding to the q
PFP
and to the q
PFD
Flow velocity at q
PFP
and at q
PFD
Columns showing sewer layout data (invert elevations at the
upstream and at the downstream ends of the sewer)
Corrected invert elevations of the sewer on the basis of
Sewer pipe thickness and crown cover required
In case of a sewer junction, invert elevation of the outlet sewer
is fixed by the lowest inlet sewers invert elevation
If sewer size increases crowns of the sewer in question should
be matched with that of the upstream sewer at the manhole
Urban Storm Water Drainage
System
Urban Stormwater Drainage System
Urban Drainage Design Manual; National Highway Institute, 3 rd
edition (2009) revision (2013)
Determine runoff
Design inlets
Design conduits
Design outfalls
Determine runoff.
Watershed characteristics and future development of the
watersheds
Urban development increases both peak runoff and total runoff
Land use of adjacent areas
residential , commercial, industrial, agricultural, parks and
undeveloped lands
Streets, parking lots, bridges
Rainfall and runoff calculations
Urban Stormwater Drainage System
Design inlets (location)
Logical inlet locations
Times of concentration
Limit ponding
Sizing of inlets
Design of conduits
Routing and network
Gravity flow network of conduits preferred
flow velocities in the conduit network should not be <0.6
m/s and >3.6 m/s
Conduit run travel times
Conduit slopes and conduit sizing calculations
Design of outfalls (location)
Runoff Determination: Rational method
Peak flows are adequate for the design and analysis of storm
water conveyance system
Rational formula is most commonly used to calculate peak
flows from small areas (<80 hectares)
Peak flow occurs when the entire catchment contributes
Rainfall intensity is taken as same for the entire area over the
time of concentration (t
c
)
Peak flows are calculated both
For the current conditions
For the proposed/improved conditions
u
K
CIA
Q =
Q peak flow in m3/sec.
C runoff coefficient
I Rainfall intensity in mm/hr
A drainage area in hectares
K
u
units conversion factor (360)
Runoff Coefficient (C)
(Composite Runoff Coefficient)
=
i
i i
weighted
A
A C
C
The runoff coefficient is multiplied
by Frequencyofevent Correction
Factor for compensating the
reduced effect of infiltration during
the less frequent higher intensity
rainfall events
Baringo curve
Rational Method
Rainfall intensity is read from the regional RDF curves
Intensity corresponding to the time of concentration of the
catchment/watershed for a specified return period is obtained
Regional IDF (intensitydurationfrequency) curves
Developed through frequency analysis of rainfall events monitored
at multitude of rain gages
Relate storm duration and exceedance probability (frequency) with
the rainfall intensity
Regional RDF (Rainfall intensity Duration Frequency) Curve
Time of Concentration
Time of Concentration (t
c
) is taken as sum of the following:
Sheet flow travel time
Shallow concentrated flow travel time (flow in rills then in
gullies)
Open channel flow/pipe flow travel time
Storm water flow in the catchments/drainage basins
In a catchment surface runoff starts as a sheet flow
after relatively a short distance travel, the sheet flow transforms
into shallow concentrated flow
The shallow concentrated flow enters open channels/sewers
and conveyed out
Sheet flow travel time

.

\

=
S
nL
I
K
T
u
ti
4 . 0
T
ti
is sheet flow travel time in minutes
K
u
is empirical coefficient (its value is 6.92)
I is rainfall intesity in mm/hr (depends on
the t
c
to be calculated)
L is flow length in meters
S is slope (catchment slope)
N is roughness coefficient
Time of Concentration (t
c
)
Shallow concentrated flow
Shallow concentrated flow velocity is estimated first and used
for estimating the shallow concentrated flow travel time
V
L
T
KS K V
ti
p u
60
5 . 0
=
=
V is velocity in m/sec.
Ku is taken as 1.0
K is intercept coefficient (depends on land cover/ flow
regime)
Sp is slope percent
Tti is shallow concentrated flow travel time (in minutes.)
L is flow length
Time of Concentration (t
c
)
Open channel/pipe flow
Here also flow velocity is estimated first and used for estimating
the open channel/pipe flow travel time
V
L
T
S R
n
K
V
ti
u
60
5 . 0
3
2
=
=
n is roughness coefficient
R is hydraulic radius (for open channels with
width >10 times depth taken as depth)
Ku is unit conversion factor (taken as 1.0)
S is slope
V is velocity in m/sec.
L is flow length in meters
Tti is travel time in ith segment in minutes
flow pipe or channel open t flow ed concentrat shallow t flow sheet t c
T T T t + + =
USGS Regression Equations for Peak Flow
Assessments
Used in ungauged sites for estimating peak flows
US geological survey has developed and compiled these
regression equations (for the return periods 2, 5, 10, 25, 50,
100 and 500 years)
Developed from the urban run off data obtined from 269
basins in 56 cities of 31 states
These regrassion equations include the following 7
parameters
1. AS is the contributing drainage area in square miles
2. SL is the main channel slope in ft/mile (measured between
10% and 85% of the main channel upstream of the outlet)
3. RI2 is rainfall amount in inches in 2 hours for a rainfall event of
2 years return period
4. ST is basin storage as percent of the total area occupied by
lakes, reservoirs, swamps and wetlands.
( ) ( ) ( )
47 . 0 15 . 0
32 . 0 65 . 0 04 . 2
17 . 0 41 . 0
2
2 13 8 3 2 35 . 2 RQ IA BDF ST RI SL A UQ
S S
+ + =
USGS Regression Equations for Peak Flow
Assessments
5. BDF is basin development factor (a measure of hydraulic
efficiency of the basin)  estimated through
division of the basin into upper, middle and lower thirds,
and
rating each of the third on 0 1 scale against the
following four parameters
a) Channel improvements
b) Channel lining (prevalence of impervious surface lining)
c) Storm drains/ sewers
d) Curb and gutter streets
6. IA is percent area of the basin occupied by impervious
surfaces
7. RQ2 is 2year rural peak flow calculated by using the
following regression equation
Even after the necessary verifications, magnititude of error in
the assessment is 3550% of the actual field measurements
SCS (NRCS) Peak Flow Method
Peak flow is estimated as
D k u p
Q A q q =
q
p
is peak flow in m3/sec.
q
u
is unit peak flow in m3/sec./km2
A
k
is basin area in km2
Q
D
is runoff depth in mm
Unit peak flow is calculated by
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 1 0
log log
10
c c
t C t C C
u u
k q
+ +
=
q
u
is unit peak flow in m3/sec./km2
k
u
is units conversion factor and its value is 0.000431
C
0
, C
1
and C
2
are coefficients whose value depends on
Rainfall distribution type
I
a
/p (I
a
is initial abstraction in mm and given as I
a
=0.2S
R
)
The coefficients values are read from the table available
t
c
is time of concentration
SCS (NRCS) Peak Flow Method
Direct runoff depth (Q
D
)
( )

.

\

=
+
=
10
100
8 . 0
2 . 0
2
CN
k S
S p
S p
Q
u R
R
R
D
QD is direct runoff depth in mm
p is depth of 24 hr precipitation in mm
SR is retention in mm
SR (retention) is obtained from
Ku is units conversion factor (value is 25.4)
CN is runoff Curve Number
Its value depends on
Soil type
Land cover
Antecedent moisture
its value is read from tables
For multiple land use/soil type combinations within a basin, area
weighted CN is used
SCS (NRCS) Peak Flow Method
If ponding/swampy areas occur in the basin and retain
considerable runoff (as temporary storage), then the peak flow
requires adjustment as
p p a
F q q =
q
a
is adjusted peak flow
q
p
is calculated peak flow
F
p
is adjustment factor (values are given below)
The method is acceptable if
the basin is fairly homogenousand has CN >40
the basin has a single main channel or branches with nearly equal t
c
tc is within 0.1 to 10 hrs range
Ia/p is within 0.1 to 0.5 range
The ponds/swamps are not in the t
c
flow path
Types of Sewerage Systems
Sewerage Types
Based on collection
Combined sewerage
Separate sewerage
Sanitary sewerage
Stormwater sewerage
Based on transport
Conventional sewerage
Simplified sewerage
Solids free sewerage
Pressurized sewerage
Vacuum sewerage
Sewerage of open channels and drains
Combined Sewerage
Underground network of pipes collecting and conveying
domestic sewage, industrial wastewater and storm water
Requires no onsite pretreatment and storage
Sewers are laid beneath roads at >1.0 to 3 m depth (avoids
damage from traffic loads on roads)
Manholes at regular intervals
Designed for gravity flow
Designed to maintain self cleansing velocity (0.6 to 0.75
m/sec.) during peak flows
Pumping stations are used when sewers become too deep
Higher capital cost (higher than simplified sewerage)
Maintenance is costly and requires trained personnel and
involves inspection, unblocking and repair
Extension is both costly and difficult
Separate Sewerage
Sewage (by sanitary sewerage) and storm water (by storm
water sewerage) are collected and conveyed separately
Good for areas of irregular heavy rainfall
Capital cost is higher than that of combined sewerage
Operational costs are moderate
Can provide higher level of hygiene and comfort
Facilitates separate management of sewage and storm water,
and reuse of storm water
Defects in pipes and manholes and illegal connections can
result in storm water flow into sanitary sewerage
Simplified (Condominal) Sewerage
Uses smaller diameter pipes (min. dia. 100mm not 150 mm)
Laid at shallower depths (crown cover reduced to 0.4 0.5 m)
Sewers are not beneath the central roads, but within the
property boundaries and beneath the sidewalks
Laid at flatter gradient than conventional sewerage slope is
determined by tractive tension (not by minimum velocity)
Expensive manholes are replaced by simple inspection
chambers or flushing points
Needs more periodical removal of blockages and flushing
To avoid frequent clogging, scum and heavier solids and garbage
are often removed prior to entry into the sewer
Capital cost is lower (5080% lesser than conventional
sewerage) and operating costs are lower
Easily extendable
Suitable if interceptor tanks/ septic tanks/ other onsite
pretreatment systems already exist
Solids Free Sewerage
Wastewater is settled for solids removal prior to entry into
sewer
Presettling units (interceptor tanks) require maintenance and
frequent emptying
Removed sludge may require proper treatment and disposal
Very small sewer diameter  lower gradient (even negative
slope), fewer pumps, and pipes at shallower depth
Self cleansing velocity may not be needed
May require fewer inspection points or manholes but requires
more frequent repairs and removal of blockages than
conventional systems may also require annual flushing
Capital investment is lower and operating cost is lower
Appropriate for areas where soak pits are inappropriate (lack
of space, ground water being sensitive)
Easily extendable as the community changes and grows
Pressurized Sewerage
Pumps rather than gravity is used to transport sewage
Electrical power input is must for these systems
Sewage is collected into a collection tank and ground prior to
allowing into the sewer
May require lesser water for the excreta transportation
Relatively smaller diameter pipes built in shallow trenches are
used
System is independent of the topography
All system components require regular servicing
Appropriate for rocky and hilly areas and for areas with high
ground water tables
Cost is comparable to a gravity sewerage or lesser
Vacuum Sewerage
It is a high tech system and requires well instructed workers
for its operation and maintenance
Unsuitable for selfhelp.
A central vacuum source is used to convey sewage from
individual points of generation to a central collection station
Wastewater is carried by gravity first to a collection chamber
Once water level in the chamber reaches a set value, a valve
will open to create vacuum and suck out the wastewater
Power (constant energy) is required to create the vacuum
Flexible pipelines are used
Pumping costs are lower
Large amounts of flushing water can be saved
May be appropriate for the areas short of water supply and
for areas with obstacles for gravity flow
Open channels and drains
Have free water surface
Less expensive, but land requirements are reasonably high
Locally available materials can be used in the construction
May prove a simple solution for storm water drainage
Often, in steep terrains, provisions are made to slow down the
flow
Bear many risks to health and environment
Illegal discharge of wastewater and solid waste is a risk
Can be breeding grounds for pests and insects
Can have spillover and flooding risks, and may require regular
cleaning
May be used as a secondary drainage system