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Performance of Transmission lines

Name of the Subject : Power Systems-I N. R. Dagade Electrical Engineering Department NBNSSOE, Ambegaon, Pune

Introduction
An electric transmission line conductor has four parameters: R, L, C, and G These are uniformly distributed along the whole length of the line and representation of these parameters at any point on the line is not possible. These are usually expressed as resistance, inductance, capacitance and conductance per kilometre.

Performance of Transmission Line


The transmission lines are categorized as three types1) Short transmission line The line length is up to 80 km with an operating voltage up to 20 kV 2) Medium transmission line The line length is between 100 km and 250 km with an operating voltage ranging from 20 kV to 100 kV 3) Long transmission line The line length above 250 km and operating voltage above 100 kV

Performance of Transmission Line


performance of transmission line can be determined by its efficiency and voltage regulation.

Power sent from sending end - line losses = Power delivered at receiving end. Voltage regulation of transmission line is measure of change of receiving end voltage from no-load to full load condition.

ABCD Parameters of Transmission Line


The circuit of a 2 port network is shown in the diagram below.

Vs, Is supply end voltages and currents VR, IR receiving end voltages and currents ABCD parameters or the transmission line parameters provide the link between Vs, Is and VR, IR considering the circuit elements to be linear in nature.

ABCD Parameters of Transmission Line

Parameter A = VS / VR B = VS / IR

Specification Voltage ratio

Unit Unit less

Short circuit resistance Open circuit conductance Current ratio

C = I S / VR
D = I S / IR

mho
Unit less

Short Transmission Line


The transmission lines which have length less than 80 km are generally referred as short transmission lines. For short length, the shunt capacitance of this type of line is neglected and other parameters like electrical resistance and inductance of these short lines are lumped, hence the equivalent circuit is represented as given below,

Short Transmission Line


Is = Ir. Now if we observe the vector diagram carefully, we will get, Vs Vr + Ir.R.cosr + Ir.X.sinr Vs Vr + Ir.R.cosr + Ir.X.sinr as the it is assumed that s r Vs = Vr + IrZ and Is = Ir Compairing with

A = 1, B = Z, C = 0 and D = 1. AD-BC=1

Short Transmission Line


Regulation of Short Transmission Line

Efficiency of Short Transmission Line

Medium Transmission Line


When the length of an overhead transmission line is between 100 km and 250 km with an operating voltage ranging from 20 kV to 100 kV, it is considered as a medium transmission line. Due to the line length being considerably high, admittance Y of the network does play a role in calculating the effective circuit parameters For this reason the modelling of a medium length transmission line is done using lumped shunt admittance along with the lumped impedance in series to the circuit.

Medium Transmission Line


These lumped parameters of a medium length transmission line can be represented using two different models, namely1)Nominal representation. 2)Nominal T representation.

Medium Transmission LineNominal representation.

Now applying KCL, at node P, we get. Similarly applying KCL, to node Q.

(1) (2)

Medium Transmission LineNominal representation.


Now substituting equation (2) to equation (1)

Now by applying KVL to the circuit,

Now substituting equation (4) to equation(3), we get

Medium Transmission LineNominal representation.


Comparing equation (4) and (5) with the standard ABCD parameter equations We get,

Medium Transmission LineNominal T Representation

Vs and VR is the supply and receiving end voltages respectively, and Is and IR is the supply and receiving end currents respectively Let M be a node at the midpoint of the circuit, and the drop at M, be given by Vm.

Medium Transmission LineNominal T Representation


Applying KVL to the above network we get,

Rearranging the above equations

Medium Transmission LineNominal T Representation


Now the sending end current is,

(9) Substituting the value of VM to equation (9) we get,

Again comparing equation (8) and (10) with the standard ABCD parameter equations,

Questions
1. Resistivity of a wire depends on A. material B. length C. cross section area D. all of above Ans: A 2. Shunt capacitance is usually neglected in the analysis of (A) Short transmission lines (B) Medium transmission lines (C) Long transmission lines (D) Medium as well as long transmission lines.

Questions
3. In overhead transmission lines the effect of capacitance can be neglected when the length of line is less than (A) 200 km (B) 160 km (C) 100 km (D) 80 km. Answer:D 4. In a transmission line following arc the distributed constants (A) resistance and inductance only (B) resistance, inductance and capacitance (C) resistance, inductance, capacitance and short

Questions
5. A 30 km transmission line carrying power at 33 kV is known as (A) short transmission line (B) long transmission line (C) high power line (D) ultra high voltage line. Answer: A 6. In terms of constants A, B, C and D for short transmission lines, which of the following relation is valid ? (A) A = B = 1 (B) B = D = 0 (C) A = C = 1 (D) C=0. Answer: D

Questions
7. Which of the following relationships is not valid for short
transmission lines ? (A) B = Z = C (B) A = D = 1 (C) Is = Ir (D) None of the above. Answer: A 8. Which of the following short circuit is the most dangerous ? (A) Line to line short circuit (B) Dead short circuit (C) Line to ground short circuit (D) Line to line and ground short circuit. Answer: B

Questions
9. In the analysis of short transmission lines which of the following is neglected ? (A) I2 R loss (B) Shunt admittance (C) Series impedance (D) All of the above. Answer: B 10. In medium transmission lines the shunt capacitance is taken into account in (A) Tee method (B) Pie method (C) Steinmetz method (D) all of the above. Answer: D

Questions
11. In nominal T method A. full charging current flows over full the line B. half charging current flows over the full the line C. full charging current flows over half the line D. half charging current flows over half the line Answer: C 12. Which combination is true for short lines A. A =1, B=Z, C=0, D=1 B. A=0, B=1, C= Z, D=1 C. A=1, B=1, C= Z, D=0 D. A=0, B=0, C=1, D=Z Answer: A

Thank You.