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Hardened Concrete

Properties
Strength
compressive strength 2000-8000 psi
tensile strength 200-800 psi
flexural strength
compression >> tension since concrete is notch
sensitivite
Factors Affecting Strength
Curing conditions, humidity
temperature
w/c , (inversely related) Abrams law
air content, (inversely related), short and long term
aggregate characteristics, roughness,grading,
minerological.
cement type, composition, fineness, type I vs. type III
cement content (directly related)
Strength porosity relationship
mixing water

Strength and Curing
time
in air entire time
moist cured entire time
in air after 3 days
in air after 7 days
Strength
28
100%
Factors Affecting Concrete Strength
Durability
Resistance to freezing and thawing
Cracking
Internal Problems
Rebar Corrosion
Resistance to freezing and thawing-Major
factors
Air Entrainment
w/c, low water -cement ratio/ water content
volume stability, stiff aggregates with low coefficient of
thermal expansion
Air Entrainment
Water gains 9% in volume upon freezing
nighttime freezing followed by daytime thawing,
approximately 40 cycles per year, average. max of 200
cycles per year.
fatigue loading of ice formation within pores
Air Entraining Admixture (AEA) Must provide:
Pore size
Pore spacing
Pore specific surface area

Internal voids
Durability-Cracking
path for harmful material to get into
concrete
sulfates- soils
cause severe expansion, and deterioration
chlorides -deicing salts
initiate corrosion
Excessive shrinkage
Durability-internal problems
Alkali-silica reaction
excessive sulfates
Rebar corrosion
NaCl
+
-
Mechanism of corrosion
Corrosion Protection
Proper cover of at least 2
lower w/c
denser concrete
avoid using chlorides
Review
Strength
Durability
Water Tightness
water cement ratio
Permeability
Volume Stability
shrinkage deformation with no load applied
creep deformation under sustained loading
Load Induced Volume Changes
Instantaneous, 1D
E

Secant modulus
Tangent modulus
c
.
concrete
' f E
5 1
33
ft cubic / lbs , concrete of weight unit
psi , strength e compressiv ' f
c

Load Induced Volume Changes


Time dependant

Creep deformation
Deformation
Time
Creep in Concrete
Creep in Concrete
water
Creep
Consequences of creep
Loss in pre-stress
possibility of excessive deflection
stressing of non load bearing members
Economy
Cement Content
50-60$/ton
Aggregates
5-6 $/ton
minimum cement required at the minimum
water cement ratio, with the maximum
strength and durability