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WATER

RESOURCES
ENGINEERING
Reporters: Flores, Bethel Princess T.
Jamias, Lovely Mae
Porras, Nomar
Anos, Mark Anthony


WHAT IS
Water Resources
Engineering?
Water Resources Engineering focuses on the use and management of land
and water resources in rural and urban watersheds.
As a student in Water Resources Engineering, you will cover topics
like:
Water conservation
River restoration
Water supply
Storm water management
Groundwater protection
Rural water management
Flood protection
Groundwater utilization
Geographical Information Systems
Modelling
Environmental science
Meteorology and Geology

Water resources engineers are concerned with the problems
associated with the use and control of water.
Water resources engineering is the profession that is responsible
for the planning, development and management of water
resources. From estimating the amount of water available to
designing the physical and non-physical infrastructure needed to
meet the water needs of society and the environment, civil
engineers play a central role within a multi-disciplinary team. To
ensure access to clean safe drinking water, civil engineers
design, build and manage the water intakes, the water treatment
plants and the network of pipes that convey water to your tap.
Civil engineers use state-of-the-art technologies to treat domestic
and industrial wastewaters before discharging treated water back
into the environment. Civil engineers also devise physical (dams,
dikes) and non-physical (flood forecasting) solutions to minimize
the threat to lives and property due to flooding.

Water resources engg involves:
Water and Wastewater treatment plant design
Water Distribution, Wastewater and Storm water Sewer
Systems
Irrigation Engineering
River Engineering, Hydraulics, Hydrodynamics, Sediment
Transport, Contaminant Transport, River Morphology, Ice-
covered rivers
Hydraulic Structures
(reservoirs, floodways, dams,dykes, spillways & sluice
gates, channels, water intakes,...)
Drainage Canals
Groundwater and Seepage, well design, seepage control,
underground contaminant transport
Surface Runoff Analysis
Hydrology, winter hydrology, climate change


Extreme Events Water Reservoir

Wastewater and
Stormwater Sewer
Systems
Channel Systems

Irrigation Engineering
Floodway Systems
WHAT ARE THE
Importance of Water?
Health and Human Life
Next to air (oxygen), water is the most essential element
to human life; the body usually cannot survive longer
than several days without water (a maximum of 1 week).
Water is essential to the functioning of every single cell
and organ system in the human body.
Water makes up greater than 2/3 of the weight of the
human body; the brain is 75% water, blood is 83%
water, bones are 22% water, muscles are 75% water,
and the lungs are 90% water.
Water is essential for the efficient elimination of waste
products through the kidneys.
Water regulates body temperature (through
perspiration).

Water serves a lubricant; water forms the fluids surrounding
joints and bones, providing cushioning for the joints.
Water prevents and alleviates constipation (by moving food
through the intestines and eliminating waste products).
Water helps the body to absorb nutrients in the intestines.
Water plays a role in regulating metabolism.
Water forms the base for saliva (necessary for consuming
and digesting food).
Water carries nutrients and oxygen to all cells in the body and
facilitates all of the chemical processes which occur in the
body.
Water plays a role in the prevention of disease. Drinking
adequate amounts of water can reduce the risk of colon and
bladder cancer significantly, and some studies have
suggested that water may also decrease the risk of breast
cancer.

Water regenerates and is redistributed through
evaporation, making it seem endlessly
renewable
WHAT ARE THE
Classifications of Water
Applications?
Class I - Potable Water Supplies
Fourteen general areas throughout the state including:
impoundments and associated tributaries, certain
lakes, rivers, or portions of rivers, used as a source of
potable water.
Class II - Shellfish Propagation or Harvesting
Generally coastal waters where shellfish harvesting
occurs.
Class III - Fish Consumption, Recreation,
Propagation and Maintenance of a Healthy, Well-
Balanced Population of Fish and Wildlife
The surface waters of the state are Class III unless
described in rule 62-302.400, F.A.C.

Class III-Limited Fish Consumption;
Recreation or Limited Recreation; and/or
Propagation and Maintenance of a Limited
Population of Fish and Wildlife
This classification is restricted to waters with
human-induced physical or habitat conditions that,
because of those conditions, have limited aquatic
life support and habitat that prevent attainment of
Class III uses.
Class IV - Agricultural Water Supplies
Generally located in agriculture areas around
Lake Okeechobee.

Class V - Navigation, Utility and Industrial
Use.
Currently, there are not any designated Class
V bodies of water. The Fenholloway River was
reclassified as Class III in 1998.

WHAT ARE THE
Different Water Treatment
Process?
Water treatment describes industrial-scale processes that
make water more acceptable for an end-use, which may
be drinking, industrial, or medical. Water treatment is
unlike small-scale water sterilization that campers and other
people in wilderness areas practice. Water treatment should
remove existing water contaminantsor so reduce their
concentration that their water becomes fit for its desired end-
use, which may be safely returning used water to the
environment.
The processes involved in treating water for drinking purpose
may be solids separation using physical processes such
as settling and filtration, and chemical processes such
as disinfection and coagulation.
Biological processes are employed in the treatment of
wastewater and these processes may include, for
example, aerated lagoons, activated sludge or slow sand
filters.

Potable Water Purification
Water purification is the removal of contaminants from
untreated water to produce drinking water that is pure enough
for the most critical of its intended uses, usually for human
consumption. Substances that are removed during the
process of drinking water treatment include suspended
solids, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi, minerals such
as iron, manganese and sulfur, and other
chemical pollutants such as fertilisers.
Measures taken to ensure water quality not only relate to the
treatment of the water, but to its conveyance and distribution
after treatment as well. It is therefore common practice to
have residual disinfectants in the treated water in order to kill
any bacteriological contamination during distribution.
World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines are generally
followed throughout the world for drinking water quality
requirements. In addition to the WHO guidelines, each
country or territory or water supply body can have their own
guidelines in order for consumers to have access to safe
drinking water.
Sewage Treatment
Sewage treatment is the process that removes the
majority of the contaminants from wastewater
orsewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable
for disposal to the natural environment and asludge.
To be effective, sewage must be conveyed to a
treatment plant by appropriate pipes and
infrastructure and the process itself must be subject to
regulation and controls. Some wastewaters require
different and sometimes specialized treatment
methods. At the simplest level, treatment of sewage
and most wastewaters is carried out through
separation of solids from liquids, usually
bysedimentation. By progressively converting
dissolved material into solids, usually a biological floc,
which is then settled out, an effluent stream of
increasing purity is produced.
[1][2]

Industrial Water Treatment
Two of the main processes of industrial water
treatment are boiler water treatment and cooling
water treatment. A lack of proper water treatment
can lead to the reaction of solids and bacteria
within pipe work and boiler housing. Steam boilers
can suffer from scale orcorrosion when left
untreated leading to weak and dangerous
machinery, scale deposits can mean additional
fuel is required to heat the same level of water
because of the drop in efficiency. Poor quality dirty
water can become a breeding ground for bacteria
such as Legionellacausing a risk to public health.

Water Treatment: Disinfectants and
Other
Disinfectants: Ozone, as a very strong oxidant, is one of the main
disinfectants when purifying water. As ozone breaks down in the
water, a complex chain reaction mechanism occurs under the effect
of the various solutes in the water or released during purification
treatment. Its ability to inactivate living cells can be extended to the
point of provoking their lysis.
[8]:356357

Ultraviolet(UV) radiation is produced using ultraviolet lamps with
quartz covers. UV produces a minimum of by-products when
treating the water.
[8]:364365

Other: An advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a system to purify
water by chemical oxidation to deactivate residual organic
pollutants. AOPs are capable of generating a more powerful and
less selective secondary oxidant in the reaction medium by
activating an available primary oxidant. AOP has been only
gradually used in the water treatment industry. One of the many
AOP systems, the combined O
3
/H
2
O
2
, is the most widely used one
especially for the purpose of destroying pesticides
[which?]
in order to
produce water for human consumption.
[8]:365367