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Chemical Bonding

Brief Recap

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Substances

Metallic Covalent Ionic


substances Substances Compounds

Simple Molecular Giant Molecular


Substances Substances

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Giant Molecular
Substances
Macromolecules

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Giants
- - - - - -
+ -
+ - + -+ +
- - - - - -
-
- - -
+ - -
+ - + + +
- - - - - -
- - -
- + + -
+ + +
- - - - -

Giant metallic structure Giant ionic structure

How about giant molecular structure?

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Structure of Giant Molecular
Substances (In general)

• Giant covalent structure


• Atoms held by strong covalent bonds

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Giant Molecular Substances

www.diamondvues.com/loose_diamond_shapes
http://chemistry.about.com/od/periodictableelements/ig/Elem
/

mrbarlow.wordpress.com/2008/02/12/sandcastles

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Diamond

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Diamond
www.diamondvues.com/loos
/

• Physical properties

Melting/Boiling Point Very high


Hardness Very hard
Electrical conductivity Does not conduct
Solubility in water Insoluble

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Diamond
• Structure: Giant covalent structure
Carbon atoms

Covalent
bonds

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http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/petrolgy/Diamond%20Structure.HTM
Diamond
• Structure: Giant covalent structure

Each carbon atom joined tetrahedrally to four other


carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds.
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Diamond
Physical Properties Rationales
Very high A lot of energy is required
melting/boiling point to break the strong
Very hard covalent bonds between
the carbon atoms.
Does not conduct No mobile charge carriers
electricity (ions or electrons) present.

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Diamond
Uses Rationales
Drill-tips and cutting tools It is very hard.
Gemstones in jewellery –

http://www.supertoolscompany.com/F7948/diamond_cutting_tools.html
http://www.jewelsdeparagon.com/catalog/product_info.php?produc

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Graphite

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Graphite
http://chemistry.about.com/od/periodictab

• Physical Properties

Melting/Boiling Point Very high


Hardness Soft and slippery
Electrical conductivity Conducts
Solubility in water Insoluble

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Graphite
• Structure: Giant covalent structure

Microscopic
image of graphite Honeycomb

http://www.pbase.com/beekeeper/image/23669013
http://www.physik.uni-augsburg.de/exp6/imagegallery/afmimages/afmimages_e.shtml

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Graphite
• Structure: Giant covalent structure

Carbon atoms in one layer Layers of carbon atoms


Covalent
bonds

Carbon
atoms

Van der
Waals’
forces
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/structures/giantcov.html http://www.scifun.ed.ac.uk/card/flakes.html

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Graphite
• Structure: Giant covalent structure
• Consists of flat layers of carbon atoms
• In each layer, each carbon atom joined to three
other carbon atoms by strong covalent
bonds.
• Layers of carbon atoms are held by weak van
der Waals’ forces.
• No covalent bonds between the layers.

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Graphite
Physical Properties Rationales
Very high A lot of energy is required to break
melting/boiling point the strong covalent bonds between
the carbon atoms within each layer.
Soft and slippery Layers of carbon atoms can slide
over each other due to the weak van
der Waals’ forces between the
layers.
Conducts electricity Each carbon atom contributes one
outer shell electron which is not used
to form covalent bonds. These
electrons can move along the layers
to conduct electricity. 18
Graphite
Uses Rationales
Dry lubricant It is slippery and does not
decompose at high
temperatures.
Pencil lead It is soft as the carbon layers
can flake off easily.
Inert electrodes It is a good conductor of
for electrolysis electricity and is fairly unreactive.

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Diamond and Graphite
• Different forms of carbon
– Allotropes of carbon

Allotropes are different forms of the same


element.

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Sand

Silicon (IV) oxide/silicon dioxide/silica

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Sand
• Physical properties
mrbarlow.wordpress.com/2008/02/12/sand

Melting/Boiling Point Very high


Hardness Very hard
Electrical conductivity Does not conduct
Solubility in water Insoluble

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Sand
• Structure: Giant covalent structure

http://www3.moe.edu.sg/edumall/tl/digital_resources/chemistry/images/img_CH_00019.jpg

Each silicon atom is covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms


by strong covalent bonds in a tetrahedral structure and each
oxygen atom is covalently bonded to two silicon atoms. 23
Sand
Physical Properties Rationales
Very high A lot of energy is required
melting/boiling point to break the strong
Very hard covalent bonds between
the carbon atoms.
Does not conduct No mobile charge carriers
electricity (ions or electrons) present.

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