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Properties of

Orthodontic Wires
Part I
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY

Leader in continuing dental education
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Introduction
Moving teeth and craniofacial harmony
Forces and moments

Wires

Light continuous forces
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History
1. Material Scarcity, Abundance of Ideas
(1750-1930)
noble metals
Gold, platinum, iridium and silver alloys
good corrosion resistance
acceptable esthetics
lacked the flexibility and tensile strength
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Angle (1887) German silver (a type of
brass)
Opposition Farrar discolored
Neusilber brass (Cu 65%, Ni 14%, Zn 21%)
various degrees of cold work (diff prop)
jack screws,
expansion arches,
Bands
History
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History

Wood, rubber, vulcanite, piano wire and
silk thread

No restrictions.
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History
Stainless steel (entered dentistry -1920)
Stahl and Eisen Benno Strauss & Eduard
Maurer in 1914
By 1920 Dr. F Hauptmeyer.
Simon, schwarz, Korkhous, De Coster-
orthodontic material
Replaced
Opposition Emil Herbst

gold wire was stronger than stainless steel. (1934)
Steel as ligature wire
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History
2. Abundance of materials, Refinement
of Procedures (1930 1975)
Improvement in metallurgy and organic
chemistry mass production(1960)
Farrars dream(1878)
Cobalt chrome (1950s)-Elgin watch co
Rocky Mountain Orthodontics- Elgiloy
Nitinol (1970s)- Buehler, into
orthodontics- Andreasen. Unitek
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History
3. The beginning of Selectivity (1975 to
the present)
Orthodontic manufacturers
Beta titanium (1980)
CAD/CAM larger production runs
Composites and Ceramics
Iatrogenic damage

Nickel and bis-GMA
New products- control of govt agencies, pri
organization

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Basic Properties of Materials
Elements all particles identical
~ Atoms-smallest
Electrons orbits around nucleus
Floating in shells of diff energy levels
Electrons form the basis of bonds
Atoms interact via electrons
In metals, the energy levels are very
closely spaced and the electrons tend to
belong to the entire assembly rather than
a single atom.
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Basic Properties of Materials
Array of positive ions in a sea of
electrons
Electrons free to move

electrical and thermal conductivity
Ductility and malleability
electrons adjust to deformation
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Basic Properties of Materials
Molecules 2 or more atoms
Amorphous similar properties in all
directions isotropy Glass
atoms organize themselves into specific
lattices geometry
CRYSTAL

anisotropy
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Basic Properties of Materials
CRYSTALS
Perfect crystals: anion cation anion
cation
extremely strong
Thin wiskers reinforce

If like ions are forced together, breakage
results. Unlike metals, crystals cannot
deform.
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Basic Properties of Materials
alloy crystals grow
anion cation anion cation
Perfect crystals seldom exist

Crystals penetrate each other such that the
crystal shapes get deformed and cannot
be discerned grains


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Basic Properties of Materials
Grains microns to centimeters
Grain boundaries
Atoms are irregularly arranged, and this
leads to a weaker amorphous type
structure.
Alloy combination of crystalline (grains)
and amorphous (grain boundaries)
Decreased mechanical strength and
reduced corrosion resistance
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Basic Properties of Materials
Stages in the
formation of metallic
grains during the
solidification of a
molten metal


Polycrystalline- each
crystal - grain
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Basic Properties of Materials
Vacancies These are empty atom sites
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Interstitials Smaller atoms that penetrate
the lattice Eg Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen,
Boron. Often distort the metal structure
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Basic Properties of Materials
Substitutial Element another metal atom can
substitute one of the same or similar size. E.g. -
Nickel or Chromium substituting iron in stainless
steel.
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Imperfections- although they lower the
cleavage strength of the metal , increase
its resistance to deformation
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LATTICE
The three dimensional arrangement of
lines that can be visualized as connecting
the atoms in undisrupted crystals, is called
a lattice.
Unit cell
Crystal combination of unit cells, in
which each cell shares faces, edges or
corners with the neighboring cells
14 crystal lattices

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Basic Properties of Materials
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Basic Properties of Materials
The atoms, which are
represented as points,
are not static. Instead,
they oscillate about that
point and are in dynamic
equilibrium.
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Lattice deformations:
various defects slip planes-along which
dislocation occurs


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shear stress atoms of the crystals
can glide along these planes

more the slip planes easier is it to
deform
Slip planes intercepted at grain
boundaries-increases the resistance to
further deformation
Basic Properties of Materials
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If the shearing force is:-
Small - atoms slip, and return back to their
original position (elastic deformation)
Beyond the elastic limit -
crystal suffers a slight deformation
permanent (plastic deformation)
Greater stress - fracture

Basic Properties of Materials
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During deformation - atomic bonds within
the crystal get stressed
~ resistance to more deformation

Number of atoms that get stressed also
increases = resistance to more
deformation
Strain or work hardening or cold work

Basic Properties of Materials
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Work hardening
Forced interlocking of grains and atoms of
metal.
Locked in and under pressure/tension
Carried at room temperature.
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Strain hardening- principle
~ Hard and strong, tensile strength
~Brittle.

Annealing heat below melting point.
More the cold work, more rapid the annealing
Higher melting point higher annealing temp.
the melting temperature (
o
K)
Basic Properties of Materials
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ANNEALING:
Recovery
Recrystallization
Grain Growth
Basic Properties of Materials
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Basic Properties of Materials
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Before Annealing


Recovery Relief of stresses

Recrystallization New grains
from severely cold worked areas
-original soft and ductile condition

Grain Growth large crystal eat
up small ones-ultimate coarse grain
structure is produced
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Annealing
Smaller grains harder and stronger
Larger grain boundaries to oppose the slip
planes.
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Various methods of obtaining smaller grain size
1. Enhancing crystal nucleation by adding fine
particles with a higher melting point, around
which the atoms gather.
2. Preventing enlargement of existing grains.
Abrupt cooling (quenching) of the metal.
Dissolve specific elements at elevated
temperatures. Metal is cooled
Solute element precipitates =barriers to the
slip planes.
Basic Properties of Materials
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Solution heat treatment
Heat below the solidus temp
Held for sometime, - random solid soln
Cool rapidly to room temp. retained.
Soft and ductile
AGE HARDENING

Below : ordered structure
Time period
Stronger, harder but less ductile.
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Twinning
Closed packed hexagonal type of crystals
Two symmetric halves
Fixed angle
NiTi - multiple
Subjected to a higher temperature,
de - twinning occurs (shape memory)
Basic Properties of Materials
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Basic Properties of Materials
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Polymorphism
Metals and alloys exist as more than one
type of structure
Transition from one to the other
Allotropy - reversible
At higher temperature, iron =FCC structure
(austenite)
lower temperatures, = BCC structure
(ferrite)
Basic Properties of Materials
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Transition of Iron
Iron FCC stable
(austenite), 912*c-
1394*c
Lattice spaces greater,
Carbon atom can easily be
incorporated into the unit
cell
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Transition of Iron
On Cooling <912*c
FCC + BCC
Carbon diffuses
out as FeC
FeC adds strength
to ferrite and
austenite
TIME
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Transition of Iron
Rapidly cooled
(quenched)
Carbon cannot escape
Highly strained,
distorted body
centered tetragonal
lattice called
martensite
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Grain boundaries are more in number
Alloy is stronger and more brittle-
martensitic change various types of steel
Interstitials are intentionally incorporated
into the alloy to make it hard when it is
quenched.

Basic Properties of Materials
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Cooled slowly
Other crystal structures are formed at
intermediate temperatures +Softer
Some are stable at room temperature
Ultimately, the final structure is softer and
more workable
Basic Properties of Materials
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Tempering
Reheat the alloy to intermediate
temperature(1000*F/525*c)
Partial transformation into softer alloys
Remedy brittle martensite
more workable

Basic Properties of Materials
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Some alloys
FCC to BCC by rearrangement of atoms
Diagonal plane of the BCC unit becomes the
face of the FCC unit
Basic Properties of Materials
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Shape memory alloys Easy switching
from one type of structure to another.
Bain distortion
Over a range of temperature {hysteresis}
unlike iron
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Elastic Properties
Stress and strain
Stress- internal distribution of load.
F/A
Strain- internal distortion produced by load
deflection/unit length
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Elastic Properties
Force applied to wire =Deflection
=Internal force---- (equal and opposite)
Internal force = Stress
Area of action
Deflection =change in length = Strain
Original length
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Elastic Properties
Types of stress/strain
Tensile stretch/pull
Compressive compress/towards each other
Shear 2 forces opp direction, not in same line.
sliding of one part over another
Complex force systems
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Elastic Properties
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s

Elastic Portion
Wire returns back to original
dimension when stress is
removed
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Elastic Properties
Hookes law
Spring stretch in proportion to applied force
(proportional limit)
Modulus of elasticity constant for a given
material
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Elastic Properties
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s

Elastic Limit
Proportional Limit
Yield strength
0.1%
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Elastic Properties
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s

Ultimate Tensile
Strength
Fracture Point
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Elastic Properties
ultimate tensile strength is higher than the
yield strength

important clinically = maximum force that
the wire can deliver

Ultimate tensile strength higher than the
stress at the point of fracture
reduction in the diameter of the wire
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Elastic Properties
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s

Slope Stiffness
Stiffness 1 .
Springiness
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Elastic Properties
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s

Range Springback
Point of arbitrary clinical loading
Yield point
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Elastic Properties
Clinically, ortho wires are deformed
beyond their elastic limit.
Springback properties are important

Strength = Stiffness x Range
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Elastic Properties
Resiliency -
When a wire is stretched, the space between the
atoms increases. Within the elastic limit, there is
an attractive force between the atoms.
Energy stored within the wire.
Strength + springiness

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Elastic Properties
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s

Resilience
Formability
Proportional limit
Yield strength
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Elastic Properties

Formability - amount of permanent
deformation that the wire can withstand
without breaking
Indication of the ability of the wire to take
the shape
Also an indication of the amount of cold
work that they can withstand
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Elastic Properties
Flexibility
large deformation (or large strain) with
minimal force, within its elastic limit.

Maximal flexibility is the strain that occurs
when a wire is stressed to its elastic limit.
Max. flexibility = Proportional limit
Modulus of elasticity.
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Elastic Properties
Toughness force required to fracture a
material. Total area under the stress
strain graph.
Brittleness opposite of toughness. A
brittle material, is elastic, but cannot
undergo plastic deformation. eg: Glass
Fatigue Repeated cyclic stress of a
magnitude below the fracture point of a
wire can result in fracture. This is called
fatigue. www.indiandentalacademy.com

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Properties of
Orthodontic Wires
Part I
Dr. Vijaya Lakshmi
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Elastic Properties
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Elastic Properties
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Elastic Properties
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s

Resilience
Formability
Proportional limit
Yield strength
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Requirements of an ideal archwire
(Kusy )
1. Esthetics
2. Stiffness
3. Strength
4. Range
5. Springback
6. Formability

7. Resiliency
8. Coefficient of friction
9. Biohostability
10. Biocompatibility
11. Weldability

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1. Esthetics
Desirable
No compromise on mechanical properties
White coloured wires discolour
Destroyed by oral enzymes
Deformed by masticatory loads
Except the composite wires
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2. Stiffness / Load deflection Rate
Proffit: - slope of stress-strain curve
Thurow - force:distance ratio, measure of
resistance to deformation.
Burstone Stiffness is related to wire
property & appliance design
Wire property is related to Material &
cross section.
Wilcock Stiffness Load
Deflection
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Stiffness / Load deflection Rate
Magnitude of the force delivered by the appliance
for a particular amount of deflection.
Low stiffness or Low LDR implies that:-
1) Low forces will be applied
2) The force will be more constant as the appliance
deactivates
3) Greater ease and accuracy in applying a given
force.

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3 point bending test
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3. Strength
Yield strength, proportional limit and ultimate
tensile/compressive strength
Kusy - force required to activate an archwire
to a specific distance.
Proffit - Strength = stiffness x range.
Range limits the amount the wire can be
bent, Stiffness is the indication of the force
required to reach that limit.
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Strength
The shape and cross section of a wire
have an effect on the strength of the wire.
The effects of these will be considered
subsequently.

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4. Range
Distance that the wire bends elastically,
before permanent deformation occurs
(Proffit).
Kusy Distance to which an archwire can
be activated- working range.
Thurow A linear measure of how far a
wire or material can be deformed without
exceeding the limits of the material.
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5. Springback
Kusy - The extent to which a wire recovers
its shape after deactivation

Ingram et al a measure of how far a wire
can be deflected without causing
permanent deformation. (Contrast to
Proffit yield point).
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5. Springback
Large springback
Activated to a large extent.
Hence it will mean fewer archwire
changes.
Ratio yield strength
Modulus of elasticity
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6. Formability
Kusy the ease in which a material may
be permanently deformed.
Ease of forming a spring or archwire
Proffit: amount of permanent deformation
a wire can withstand without breaking
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7. Resiliency
Store/absorb more strain energy /unit
volume before they get permanently
deformed
Greater resistance to permanent
deformation
Release of greater amount of energy on
deactivation
High work availability to move the teeth
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8. Coefficient of friction
Brackets (and teeth) must be able to slide
along the wire
High amounts of friction = anchor loss.
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9. Biohostability:- site for accumulation of
bacteria, spores or viruses. An ideal
archwire must have poor biohostability.

10. Biocompatibility:- Resistance of
corrosion, and tissue tolerance to the wire.

11. Weldability:- the ease by which the
wire can be joined to other metals, by
actually melting the 2 metals in the area of
the bond. (A filler metal may or may not be
used.)
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Properties of Wires
Before the titanium alloys were
introduced into orthodontics, the
practitioners used only steel wires. So the
way to control the stiffness of the wire
was:-
1. Change the cross section of the wire

2. Increase the length of the wire ( inter
bracket distance, incorporate loops.)
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Effects of Wire Cross Section
Wires of various dimensions and cross
sections.

Does the wire need to be move teeth over
large distances, or does it need to correct
the torque of the tooth?
Is it primarily going to be used to correct
first order irregularities, or second order?
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Effects of Wire Cross Section
primary factor
load deflection rate or stiffness
play of the wire
in the second order
0.016 wire in 0.022 slot is only 1.15 times the play of a
0.018 wire.
The play in the second order becomes significant if the
wire dimensions are drastically different (0.010 and
0.020)


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Effects of Wire Cross Section
Based on stiffness/load deflection rate
Force delivered by a wire with high load deflection rate
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Effects of Wire Cross Section
Force delivered by a wire with low load deflection rate
Force delivered by a wire with low load deflection rate
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Load deflection rate
Shape Moment
of Inertia
Ratio to stiffness of
round wire
d
4

64
1
s
4

12
1.7
b
3
h
12
1.7 b
3
h:d
4

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Effects of Wire Cross Section
Dimension of wire increases- LDR
increases
Round and square wire of same
dimension-LDR of square wire is more.
Rectangular wire maximum stiffness
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Effects of Wire Cross Section
Stiffness of different dimensions of wires
can be related to each other.


0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
S
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s

n
u
m
b
e
r

(
B
u
r
s
t
o
n
e
)
14 16 18 20 22 16x16 18x18 21x21 16x22 22x16 18x25 25x18 21x25 25x21 215x28 28x215
Wire dimension
Relative stiffness
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Effects of Wire Cross Section
Rectangular wires bending perpendicular to
the larger dimension (ribbon mode)
easier than bending perpendicular to the smaller
dimension (edgewise).


0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
S
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s

n
u
m
b
e
r

(
B
u
r
s
t
o
n
e
)
14 16 18 20 22 16x16 18x18 21x21 16x22 22x16 18x25 25x18 21x25 25x21 215x28 28x215
Wire dimension
Relative stiffness
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Effects of Wire Cross Section
The larger dimension = correction is
needed.

The smaller dimension = the plane in which
more stiffness is needed.

> first order, < second order RIBBON

> Second order, < first order - EDGEWISE

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Effects of Wire Cross Section
> 1
st
order correction in anterior segment
> 2
nd
order in the posterior segment,
wire can be twisted 90
o

If both, 1
st
& 2
nd
order corrections are required
to the same extent, then square or round wires.

The square wires - advantage - simultaneously
control torque
better orientation into a rectangular slot.


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Effects of Wire Cross Section
Cross-sectional shape:

On range and strength
Diameter increases-strength third power
of diameter
Range increases proportional to
diameter
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Effects of Wire Cross Section
In torsion - absolute values of strength,
stiffness and range are different,
but the overall effect of changing the
diameter of the wire is the same.

1. Strength Increases with increase in
diameter
2. Stiffness increases
3. Range decreases.
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Effects of Length
Loops,
the inter-bracket distance

For bending
1. Strength decreases proportionately
2. Stiffness decreases as a cubic function
3. Range increases as a square.
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Effects of Length
In the case of torsion, the picture is
slightly different. Increase in length:

1. Stiffness decreases proportionately
2. Range increases proportionately
3. Strength remains unchanged.
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Effects of Length
Way the beam is attached also affects the
values
cantilever, the stiffness of a wire is
obviously less
wire is supported from both sides (as an
archwire in brackets), again, the stiffness
is affected
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Effects of Length
Cantilever Beam supported on both ends Fixed at both ends
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Effects of Length
Stiffness is also affected by the method of
ligation of the wire into the brackets.

Loosely ligated, so that it can slide through
the brackets, it has th the stiffness of a
wire that is tightly ligated.

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Clinical Implications
LIGHT CONTINUOUS FORCES
Stiff wires should be taboo to the
orthodontist?
Springier wire, can be easily distorted in
the harsh oral environment.

Aim at balance.
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Clinical Implications
Removable appliance cantilever spring
The material of choice is usually steel. (Stiff
material)
Sufficiently thick steel wire
Good strength to resist masticatory and other
oral forces.
Increase the length of the wire
Proportionate decrease in strength, but the
stiffness will decrease as a cubic function
Length is increased by either bending the wire
over itself, or by winding helicals or loops into
the spring
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Clinical Implications
In archwires of stiffer materials the same
principle can be used.
The length of wire between brackets can
be increased
loops, or smaller brackets, or special bracket
designs.

Also, the use of flexible wires
Multistranded wires
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Variable cross-section orthodontics.


Variable modulus orthodontics.
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Clinical Implications
NiTi high springback
Initial stages NiTi instead of steel
Towards the end- stiff steel wire
TMA - intermediate properties- transition
wire
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Clinical Implications
variable modulus orthodontics
Advantage-
relatively constant dimension
important for the third order control

variable stiffness approach,
compromise control for getting a wire with
adequate stiffness,
had to spend clinical time bending loops into
stiffer archwires, which would offer less play.
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Clinical Implications
Requirements of arch wires in different stages of
treatment
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Appropriate
wire
Take into account the amount of force that wire
can deliver.
For example, a NiTi wire = efficient in tipping
teeth to get them into alignment, but may not be
able to achieve third order corrections.

After using rectangular NiTi wires for alignment,
rectangular steel wire must always be used to
achieve the correct torque of the tooth.
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Nomograms
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Nomograms
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A rough idea can be obtained clinically as well

Forming an arch wire with the thumb gives
an indication of the stiffness of the wire.

Flexing the wires between the fingers,
without deforming it, is a measure of
flexibility

Deflecting the ends of an archwire between
the thumb and finger gives a measure of
resiliency.
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Corrosion
Nickel -
1. Carcinogenic,
2. mutagenic,
3. cytotoxic and
4. allergenic.

Stainless steels, Co-Cr-Ni alloys and NiTi
are all rich in Ni
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Corrosion
Placement in the oral cavity

Greater peril than implanting

Implanted material gets surrounded by a
connective tissue capsule

In the oral cavity, the alloy is free to react
with the environment.
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Corrosion
Stainless steel- Ni austenite stabilizer. Not
strongly bonded- slow release
Passivating film = traces of Fe ,Ni and Mo.
Aqueous environment
inner oxide layer
outer hydroxide layer.
CrO is not as efficient as TiO in resisting
corrosion =some Ni release
Improper handling = sensitization
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Corrosion
1. Uniform attack
the entire wire reacts with the
environment,
hydroxides or organometallic compounds
detectable after a large amount of metal
is dissolved.
2. Pitting Corrosion
manufacturing defects
sites of easy attack



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Corrosion
Stainless Steel
NiTi
Pitting corrosion
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Corrosion
3. Crevice corrosion or gasket corrosion -
Parts of the wire exposed to corrosive
environment
Sites of tying to the brackets
Plaque build up = disturbs the regeneration of
the passivating layer
Reach upto 2-5 mm
High amount of metals can be dissolved in the
mouth.
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Corrosion
4. Galvanic /Electrochemical Corrosion
two metals are joined
or even the same metal after different type of
treatment (soldering etc)
difference in the reactivity =
Galvanic cell.
=
Less Reactive More Reactive
(Cathodic) (Anodic) less noble metal
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Corrosion
Anodic
4
Looses Electrons
4
Soluble ions
4
Leach out
Cathodic (nobel)
4
Accepts electrons
4
Even less reactive
S.Steel- active and passive areas : depletion &
regeneration of passivating film
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Corrosion
5. Intergranular corrosion
Sensitization - ppt of CrC

6. Fretting corrosion
Wire and brackets contact
Friction = surface destruction
Pressure = rupture of the oxide layer
Debris get deposited at grain boundaries, grain
structure is disturbed.
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Corrosion
7. Microbiologically influenced corrosion
Adhesive
Craters at the base of brackets
Or wires directly bonded on to teeth
shown by Matasa.
Certain bacteria dissolve metals directly
form the wires.
Others affect surface structure.

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Micro-0rganisms on various dental
materials
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Corrosion
8. Stress corrosion
Similar to galvanic corrosion
Bending of wires = different degress of
tension and compression.
Alter the electrochemical behavior
=
anode cathode
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Corrosion
9. Corrosion Fatigue:
Cyclic stressing of a wire
Resistance to fracture decreases

Accelerated in a corrosive medium such
as saliva

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Corrosion
Analysis of used wires also indicated that a
biofilm was formed on the wire.
Eliades et al
Calcification
Shielding the wire
Protecting the patient from the alloy

Stainless steel: Fe, Ni, Cr. Allergic potential
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Orthodontic Arch Wire
Materials
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Precious Metals
Upto about the 1950s
Gold alloys
Only wire which would tolerate the oral
environment
Crozat appliance according to original
design
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Stainless Steel
1919 Germany = used to make
prostheses.
Extremely chemically stable
High resistance to corrosion.
Chromium content.
The chromium gets oxidized,
4
Impermeable, corrosion resistant layer.
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Stainless Steel
Variety of stainless steels
Varying the degree of cold
work and annealing during
manufacture
Fully annealed stainless
steel = extremely soft,
and highly formable
Ligature wire
Dead soft
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Stainless Steel
stainless steel arch wires are cold worked
to varying extents, = yield strength
increases, at the cost of their formability

The steel with the highest yield strength,
the Supreme grade steels, are also very
brittle, and break easily when bent sharply.

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Stainless Steel
Structure and composition
Chromium (11-26%)improves the corrosion
resistance
Stabilizes BCC phase
Nickel(0-22%) austenitic stabilizer
copper, manganese and nitrogen - similar
amount of nickel added to the alloy
adversely affect the corrosion resistance.
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Stainless Steel
Carbon (0.08-1.2%) provides strength
Reduces the corrosion resistance
Sensitization.
During soldering or welding, 425-815
o
c
Chromium diffuses towards the carbon
rich areas (usually the grain boundaries)
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Stainless Steel
Chromium carbides
Amount of chromium decreases
Chromium carbide is soluble, =
intergranular corrosion.
Stabilization
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Stabilization
Element which precipitates carbide more
easily than Chromium.
Usu. Titanium.
Ti 6x> Carbon
No sensitization during soldering.
Most steels used in orthodontics are not
stabilized.
Stainless Steel
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Stainless Steel
Silicon (low concentrations) improves the
resistance to oxidation and carburization at high
temperatures.
Sulfur (0.015%) increases ease of machining
Phosphorous allows sintering at lower
temperatures.
But both sulfur and phosphorous reduce the
corrosion resistance.
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Manufacture: AISI ,specially for orthodontic purposes

Various steps
1. Melting
2. Ingot Formation
3. Rolling
4. Drawing
MANUFACTURE
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Melting
Various metals of the alloy are melted
Proportion influences the properties

Ingot formation
Molten alloy into mold.
Non uniform chunk of metal
Porosities and slag.
Grains seen in the ingot control of
mechanical properties
steps
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Porosities due to dissolved gases (produced /
trapped)
Vacuum voids due to shrinking of late cooling
interior.
Important to control microstructure at this
stage basis of its phy properties and
mechanical performance
Ingot formation
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Rolling
First mechanical process.
Ingot reduced to thinner bars
Finally form a wire
Different wires from the same batch, differ in
properties

steps
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Retain their property even after rolling
Shape & arrangement altered
Grains get elongated, defects get rearranged
Work hardening structure locked up.
Wires start to crack if rolling continued
Annealing is done- mobile
Cooling structure resembles original ingot, uniform
Rolling
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Drawing
More precise
Ingot = final size.
Wire pulled through small hole in a die
Progressively smaller diameter-uniform squeezing.
Same pressure all around, instead of from 2 opposite
sides.
steps
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Series of dies
Annealing at regular intervals.
Exact number of drafts and annealing cycles
depends on the alloy (gold <carbon
steel<stainless steel)

Drawing
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Stress relief
During manufacture, wire highly stressed.
Adverse effects on mechanical properties
Annealing heat treatment
By minute slippages & readjustments in
intergranular relations without the loss of
hardening higher temp of annealing
Alternate sequence of cold working & heat
treatmentimprove strength


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Clinical implications
Soldering attachments to arch wire:
Raise in temp----wire dead
Quick and well controlled.

Cinch back, heat
Wire #

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Stainless Steel
Classification
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)
Unified Number System (UNS)
German Standards (DIN).

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Stainless Steel
The AISI numbers used for stainless steel range
from 300 to 502
Numbers beginning with 3 are all austenitic
Higher the number =
More the iron content
More expensive the alloy
Numbers having a letter L signify a low carbon
content
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Stainless Steel
Austenitic steels (the 300 series)
Better corrosion resistance -attachments
FCC structure = non ferromagnetic
Not stable at room temperature,
Austenite stabilizers =Ni, Mn and N
Known as the 18-8 stainless steels.
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Stainless Steel
Martensitic steel
FCC = BCC
BCC structure is highly stressed.
More grain boundaries,
Stronger
Less corrosion resistant
Making instrument edges which need to
be sharp and wear resistant.
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Stainless Steel
Ferritic steels (the 400 series)
Good corrosion resistance
Low strength.
Not hardenable by heat treatment.
Not readily cold worked.
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Stainless Steel
Austenitic steels more preferable :-
Greater ductility and ability to undergo more cold
work without breaking.
Substantial strengthening during cold work.
(Cannot be strengthened by heat treatment).
Strengthening effect is due partial conversion to
martensite.
Easy to weld
Easily overcome sensitization
Ease in forming.
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Stainless Steel
Duplex steels
Both austenite and ferrite grains
Increased toughness and ductility than
Ferritic steels
Twice the yield strength of austenitic
steels
Lower nickel content
Manufacturing low nickel attachments
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Stainless steel
Precipitation hardened steels
Certain elements added to them =
precipitate and increase the hardness on
heat treatment.
The strength is very high
Resistance to corrosion is low.
Used to make mini-brackets.
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General properties of Stainless
Steel
Relatively stiff material
Yield strength and stiffness can be varied
Altering the carbon content and
Cold working and
Annealing
High forces - dissipate over a very short
amount of deactivation (high load
deflection rate). www.indiandentalacademy.com
Stainless Steel
Clinical terms:-
Loop - activated to a very small extent so
as to achieve optimal force
Deactivated by only a small amount (0.1
mm)
Force level will drop tremendously
Not physiologic
More activations
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Stainless Steel
Force required to engage a steel wire into
a severely mal-aligned tooth.
Either cause the bracket to pop out,
Or the patient to experience pain.
Overcome by using thinner wires, which
have a lower stiffness.
Fit poorly =loss of control on the teeth.
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Stainless Steel
High stiffness =
Maintain the positions of teeth
Hold the corrections achieved
Begg treatment, stiff archwire, to dissipate
the adverse effects of third stage
auxiliaries
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Stainless Steel
Lowest frictional resistance
Ideal choice of wire during space closure
with sliding mechanics
Teeth be held in their corrected relation
Minimum resistance to sliding
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High Tensile Australian Wires
History
Early part of Dr. Beggs career
Arthur Wilcock Sr.
Lock pins, brackets, bands, wires, etc
Wires which would remain active for long
No frequent visits
This lead Wilcock to develop steel wires of high
tensile strength.
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High Tensile Australian Wires
Beginners found it difficult to use the
highest tensile wires
Grading system
Late 1950s, the grades available were
Regular
Regular plus
Special
Special plus
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High Tensile Australian Wires
Newer grades were introduced after the 70s.
Premium, premium +, supreme
Raw materials directly from the suppliers from out of
Australia
More specific ordering and obtaining better raw materials
Premium grade-high tensile strength
Brittle.
Softening , loss of high tensile properties

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High Tensile Australian Wires
Bauschinger effect.
Described by Dr. Bauschinger in 1886.
Material strained beyond its yield point in
one direction,
then strained in the reverse direction,
its yield strength in the reverse direction is
reduced.
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High Tensile Australian Wires
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High Tensile Australian Wires
1. Plastic prestrain increases the elastic limit of
deformation in the same direction as the
prestrain.
2. Decreases in opposite
If the magnitude of the prestrain is increased,
the elastic limit in the reverse direction can
reduce to zero.

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High Tensile Australian Wires
Straightening a wire = pulling through a
series of rollers
Prestrain in a particular direction.
Yield strength for bending in the opposite
direction will decrease.
Premium wire = special plus or special
wire
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Spinner straightening
It is mechanical process of straightening
resistant materials in the cold drawn
condition.
The wire is pulled through rotating bronze
rollers that torsionally twist it into straight
condition.
Disadv:
Decreases yield strength
Creates rougher surface

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Pulse straightening
Special method
Placed in special machines that permits
high tensile wires to be straightened.
Advantages:
1. Permits the straightening of high tensile wires
2. Does not reduce the yield strength of the wire
3. Results in a smoother wire, hence less wire
bracket friction.


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High Tensile Australian Wires
Methods of increasing yield strength of
Australian wires.

1. Work hardening
2. Dislocation locking
3. Solid solution strengthening
4. Grain refinement and orientation
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By alternate sequence of
cold working and heat
treatment the yield point
of wire can be increased
to as much as
200tons/sq inch as
shown in this graph.
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High Tensile Australian Wires
Higher yield strength
= more flexible.
Supreme grade
=flexibility = -
titanium.
Higher resiliency =
nearly three times.
NiTi = higher
flexibility but it lacks
formability


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High Tensile Australian Wires
Mollenhauer
Supreme grade wire = faster and gentler
alignment of teeth.
Intrusion = simultaneously with the base
wires
Gingival health seemed better
Originally in lingual orthodontics
Equally good for labial orthodontics as
well.
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High Tensile Australian Wires
Clinical significance of high yield strength
1. Increased working range:
Yield strength
modulus of elasticity

2. Increased resiliency:
( yield strength)2
elastic modulus
Stiffness remains the same
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High Tensile Australian Wires
3. Zero Stress Relaxation
If a wire is deformed and held in a fixed position, the
stress in the wire may diminish with time, but the strain
remains constant.
Engineering terms, implies that a form of slip by dislocation
movement takes place at the atomic level

Property of a wire to give constant light force, when
subjected to external forces (like occlusal forces).
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High Tensile Australian Wires
external forces
4
particles slip over each other
4
activation of the wire is lost

Overcome
K N
Internal friction
Between particles
yield strength
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High Tensile Australian Wires
Zero stress relaxation in springs.
To avoid relaxation in the wires working
stress
Diameter of coil : Diameter of wire = 4
smaller diameter of wires = smaller
diameter springs (like the mini springs)
Midi springs
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High Tensile Australian Wires
Twelftree, Cocks and Sims (AJO 1977)
Premium plus, Premium and Special plus
wires showed minimal stress relaxation.
Special,
Remanit,
Yellow Elgiloy,
Unisil.
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Hazel, Rohan & West (1984)
Stress relaxation of Special plus wires after
28 days was less than Dentaurum SS and
Elgiloy wires.
Barrowes (1982) & Jyothindra Kumar
(1989)
Higher working range among steel wires.
High Tensile Australian Wires
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Pulse straightened wires Spinner
straightened wires
(Skaria 1991)
Strength, stiffness and Range higher
Coeff. of friction higher
Similar surface topography, stress relaxation and
Elemental makeup.
High Tensile Australian Wires

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A study of the metallurgical properties of newly
introduced high tensile wires in comparison to the
high tensile Australian wires for various
applications in orthodontic treatment
Dr. Anuradha Acharya (2000)
Super Plus (Ortho Organizers) between Special
plus and Premium
Premier (TP) Comparable to Special
Premier Plus Special Plus
Bowflex Premium
High Tensile Australian Wires
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Highest yield strength and ultimate tensile
strength as compared to the corresponding
wires.
Higher range
Lesser coefficient of friction
Surface area seems to be rougher than that of the
other manufacturers wires.
Lowest stress relaxation.
High Tensile Australian Wires
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Clinical implications
Stage I:
1. Wilcock (P) / S+ base wire(.014)
2. Ortho organizers (super +)
Wilcock (P) & S+; T.P. Bowflex .016
Ortho organizers ( super +) T.P P+
Latter part of Stage I and most of Stage II
1. T.P (Premier), Wilcock P ,S+ .018 dia
2. Ortho Organizers (super +) T.P Bowflex

Base wires in Stage III , torquing auxiliaries,
uprighting springs
1. Wilcock S+ / P .020 base wire

Wilcock P and Supreme in .012, .010 dia
respectively
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High Tensile Australian Wires
Dislocation locking
4
High tensile wires have high density of
dislocations and crystal defects
4
Pile up, and form a minute crack
4
Stress concentration
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High Tensile Australian Wires
Small stress applied with the plier beaks
4
Crack propagation
4
Elastic energy is released
4
Propagation accelerates to the nearest grain
boundary
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High Tensile Australian Wires
Ways of preventing fracture

1. Bending the wire around the flat beak of
the pliers.
Introduces a moment about the thumb
and wire gripping point, which reduces
the applied stress on the wire.

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High Tensile Australian Wires
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High Tensile Australian Wires
2. The wire should not be held tightly in the
beaks of the pliers.
Area of permanent deformation to be
slightly enlarged,
Nicking and scarring avoided.
The tips of the pliers should not be of
tungsten carbide.

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High Tensile Australian Wires
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High Tensile Australian Wires
3. The edges rounded = reduce the stress
concentration in the wire.

4. Ductile brittle transition temperature
slightly above room temperature.

Wire should be warmed.

Spools kept in oven at about 40
o
, so that
the wire remains slightly warm.

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Multistranded Wires
2 or more wires of smaller diameter are
twisted together/coiled around a core wire.
Diameter - 0.0165 or 0.0175, but the
stiffness is much less.
On bending = individual strands slip over
each other and the core wire, making
bending easy. (yield point)
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Multi stranded wires

Co-axial


Twisted wire


Multi braided

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Multi stranded wires
Strength resist distortion
Separate strands - .007 but final wire can
be either round / rectangular

Sustain large elastic deflection in bending

Thurow: rough idea multiply

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Multistranded Wires
As the diameter of a wire decreases
Stiffness decreases as a function of the 4
th

power
Range increases proportionately
Strength decreases as a function of the 3
rd

power

Multistranded wires = Small diameter wires,
High strength
Gentler force
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Multistranded Wires
Elastic properties of multistranded archwires
depend on
1. Material parameters Modulus of elasticity
2. Geometric factors wire dimension
3. Constants:
Number of strands coiled
The distance from the neutral axis to the
outer most fiber of a strand
Plane of bending
Poissons ratio
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Multistranded Wires
Deflection of
multi stranded wire= KPL
3
knEI
K load/support constant
P applied force
L length of the beam
K helical spring shape factor
n- no of strands
E modulus of elasticity
I moment of inertia
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Multistranded Wires
Helical spring shape factor
Coils resemble the shape of a helical spring.
The helical spring shape factor is given as
2sin
2+ v cos
2

- helix angle and
v - Poissons ratio (lateral strain/axial strain)

Angle can be seen in the following diagram :-
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Multistranded Wires
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Multistranded Wires
Kusy ( AJO-DO 1984)

Compared the elastic properties of triple
stranded S.Steel wire with S.Steel, NiTi &
B-TMA
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Results
Results
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Results
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Results
0.0175 S.Steel wire had stiffness equal to
0.016NiTi & 40% of 0.016TMA
Did not resemble the 0.018 SS wire except :
Size
Wire-bracket relation.

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Multistranded Wires

Ingram, Gipe and Smith (AJO 86)

Range of 4 diff wires

Results: NiTi>MS S.Steel>CoCr>Steel

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Multistranded Wires
Nanda et al (AO 97)
. stiffness
Increase in No. of
strands stiffness
Varies as the amount
of deflection
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Multistranded Wires
Kusy (AJO-DO 2002)
Interaction between individual strands was
negligible.
Range and strength =Triple stranded Co-
axial (six stranded)
Stiffness = Coaxial < Triple stranded
Range of single stranded SS wire, triple
stranded and co-axial were similar.
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Multistranded Wires
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Welding of Steel
3 useful properties
1. Comparatively low melting point,
2. High electrical resistance and
3. Low conductivity of heat.
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Welding of Steel
Sensitization - between 425 and 815
o
C
Chromium carbides need time for their
formation.
Important to
minimize the time of passing the current
minimize the area of heating
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Welding of Steel
Join two thin sheets of metal
Same thickness
Joining tubes, wires and springs, soldering
is generally recommended.
Electrodes - small tips, not exceeding
1mm in diameter.
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Cobalt Chromium
1950s the Elgin Watch
Rocky Mountain Orthodontics
Elgiloy
CoCr alloys - stellite alloys
superior resistance to corrosion, comparable
to that of gold alloys.
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Cobalt Chromium
Cobalt 40-45%
Chromium 15-22%
Nickel for strength and ductility
Iron, molybdenum, tungsten and titanium
to form stable carbides and enhance
hardenability.
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Cobalt Chromium
Strength and formability modified by heat
treatment.
The alloy is highly formable, and can be
easily shaped.
Heat treated.
Strength
Formability
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Cobalt Chromium
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Cobalt Chromium
Heat treated at 482
o
c for 7 to 12 mins
Precipitation hardening
ultimate tensile strength of the alloy,
without hampering the resilience.

After heat treatment, elgiloy had elastic
properties similar to steel.
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Cobalt Chromium
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Cobalt Chromium
Blue soft
Yellow ductile
Green semiresilient
Red resilient
No adjustments

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Cobalt Chromium
After heat treatment =
Strength:
Blue and yellow normal steel wire
Green and red tempers higher grade
steel
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Cobalt Chromium
Heating above 650
o
C
partial annealing, and softening of the wire
Optimum heat treatment = dark straw
color of the wire
Advantage of Co-Cr over SS is
Greater resistance to fatigue and distortion
longer function as a resilient spring

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Cobalt Chromium
Properties of Co-Cr are very similar to that
of stainless steel.
Force
2x of titanium and
4 times of NiTi.
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Cobalt Chromium
Ingram ,Gipe and Smith (AJO 86)
Non heat treated Co-Cr

Range < stainless steel of comparable sizes

But after heat treatment, the range was
considerably increased.
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Cobalt Chromium
Frank and Nikolai ( AJO 1980)
Co-Cr alloys stainless steel.

Stannard et al (AJO 1986)
Co-Cr highest frictional resistance in wet and
dry conditions.
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Cobalt Chromium
Kusy et al (AJO
2001)
The elastic
modulus did not
vary appreciably =
edgewise or
ribbon-wise
configurations.
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Cobalt Chromium
Round wires =
higher ductility than
square or
rectangular wires.

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Cobalt Chromium
The modulus of
elasticity 4 diff
tempers of 0.016
elgiloy is almost
similar


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Cobalt Chromium
Elastic properties (yield strength and
ultimate tensile strength and ductility) were
quite similar for different cross sectional areas
and tempers.
This does not seem to agree with what is
expected of the wires.
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Cobalt Chromium
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Cobalt Chromium
Different tempers with different physical
properties attractive
More care taken during the manufacture of
the wires.


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References
A study of the metallurgical properties of
newly introduced high tensile wires in
comparison to the high tensile Australian
wires for various applications in orthodontic
treatment. Anuradha Acharya, MDS
Dissertation September 2000.

Kusy & Greenberg. Effects of composition
and cress section on the elastic properties
of orthodontic wires. Angle Orthod
1981;51:325-341

Kapila & Sachdeva. Mechanical properties
and clinical applications of orthodontic
wires. AJO 89;96:100-109.
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References
Burstone. Variable modulus orthodontics.
AJO 81; 80:1-16
Kusy. A review of contemporary archwires:
Their properties and characteristics. Angle
orthodontist 97;67:197-208
Ingram, Gipe, Smith. Comparative range of
orthodontic wires AJO 1986;90:296-307
Twelftree, Cocks, Sims. Tensile properties of
Orthodontic wires. AJO 89;72:682-687

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References
Kusy and Dilley. Elastic property ratios of a
triple stranded stainless steel archwire.
AJO 84;86:177-188
Arthur J Wilcock. JCO interviews. JCO
1988;22:484-489
Arthur Wilcock. Applied materials
engineering for orthodontic wires. Aust.
Orthod J. 1989;11:22-29.
Kusy, Mims, Whitley: Mechanical
characteristics of various tempers of as-
received cobalt-chromium archwires. AJO-
DO 2001;119:274-91
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