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 Sound :

The perception of the dinamic convergence and vacuum

air pressure level in ear.
 Audio : Produce from sound to electronic
 Sound wave : Generate from vibration/ shake. The air
molecul near to the shaking source will shake too. Sound
wave is produce when the molecul move reverse in
position same with the shaking object.
 Amplitud & strength of sound : The number of
moving molecul described the strength of sound and this
is called – sound amplitud ( measured in dB )
 Acoustic pressure is measured in Sound Pressure Level.
 Dinamic range : Range from silence sound level to a
noisy sound level that can be heard.
 Monaural : Sound from Headphones
 Monophonic : Sound from speaker.
0 Hz Sound Pressure Level (SPL) –
Infrasound SPL = 20 log Po/ 2 x 10⁻⁵ dB
20 Hz * Po – Sound power level
Hearing band 2 x 10⁻⁵ - Min. pressure of sound
(Sound Freq :
Human hearing level - 0 dB-SPL
100 Hz ~ 5kHz)
20kHz to 120 dB- SPL
Ultrasound ( ear will start feel the pain)

The Biology of Ear :
• Divided to 2 area :
i. External – Directional sound area (sound calyx)
ii. Intermediate – Gegendang (reception of different type of
sound freq)
- Differentiate between human and the animal
 Mono system – Depand to one recording system
and sound channel.
 i.e. – telephone system (monaural system).
Whereas, radio broadcasting and sound system
at cinema (monophonic system).
 Monaural : Sound from Headphones
 Monophonic : Sound from speaker.
 Info from mono system ≠ original info if the
audience concentrate. Because the microphone
pick the sound signal from one point whilst
audience can hear sound from two points.
• Stereo system – audio system that produce sound
from 2 direction.
• The good stereo system can produce sound illusion
(position are fixed – cross the sound stage). In hi-fi
system it is called stereo image.
• User can separate and compare the sound o/p
where the sound quality can be adjusted by
considering the sound balance.
• QUADRAPHONIC @ 4 audio speaker system.
• To boost the stereo sound.
• Better sound spreading compare to stereo sound
system with 2 speaker.
• Surround @ rear speaker – for environment sound.
• This system are used to compressed the audio o/p.
i.e Concert

Surround Surround

Layout for stereophonic sound / Dolby Stereo

 Dolby Surround
- New dimension of sound addition to
common stereo sound.
- Using Dolby MP Matrix Encoder ~
encod 4 audio channel to 2 audio
channel for stereo broadcasting
5.1 Channel System
This system have 5 channel - frequency range from
3Hz to 20 KHz for front, left and right, center,
surround o/p and additional of LFE (Low Freq. Effect)
Sub-Woofer - freq range from 3 Hz to 120 Hz.
Producer Dolby A/V
/ C Digital comp. C

Mixer R Encoder with R

Multi Ls Dolby Ls
Channel Rs
Digital Rs
Audio decoder
Digital Bit
 When sampling the wave with an
analog-to-digital converter, two
variables need to be controlled :
 The sampling rate - Controls how
many samples are taken per
 The sampling precision - Controls
how many different gradations
(quantization levels) are possible
when taking the sample
P.A. system divided to 2 level :
- High level system - wide area i.e Mosque, stadium and useful
for for place which is crowded with people
- Low level system - narrow area i.e. meeting room and place

which have a few people only.

Divided to 3 category :-
A Category – Open area ~ audiens > 5000
B Category – Inside hall ~ audiens > 1000
C Category – Inside hall ~ audiens ≈ 500
Main Cluster


Main Cluster

MIC Rear Fill


Cover by rear fill system

• Determine the function and the reason
why the audio system and the installation
equipment is used.

• Before start the equipment installation for

audio system, detail planning is needed to
understand the specification & cost

• Others factor that relates is as below :-

Study the sound condition in the area.
Audio system selection and the
determine the position of installation.
Draw the block diagram of the system,
circuit diagram, arrangement &
Additional equipment in P.A.

1. Microphone
- Convert acoustic energy to
- Able to convert in same
value ---
sound wave electric sound
in wide range
- Electrostatic, moving coil
& ribbon
2. Speaker
- Mono speaker : give distance info only.

- Stereo amplifier – give position info and

separation sound.

- Type of speaker :-
a. Moving coil - Common use. Able to
stand overload / Coil place at the
magnet chink.
b. Piezoelectric - Good for high freq /
i.e. watch
c. 2 way speaker – suitable for sound
reinforcement / Freq range suitable to
be heard.
3. Amplifier
- Amplify audio signal.

- Tone control available.

- Power per channel not more
than 100W
- Input signal from CD have
better distortion compare to
the cassette i/p.


Method of Power line distribution to
the speakers

Speaker selection based on : –

- Sound strength
- Speaker quantity
- Low power amplifier – slow
- High power amplifier – damage
the speaker
For o/p amplifier low impedance;

- total impedance value for all speakers should

higher @ same value with the o/p amplifier

Total o/p amplifier ≤ Combination of speaker

impedance impedance

For o/p amplifier high impedance ;

- total power supplied to the speaker should be
lower than the o/p amplifier capability.

Total power supplied to speaker ≤ o/p amplifier

Low Impedance Amplifier
 Amplifier produce full power o/p.
 The amplifer attached with speaker
connection point that is labelled with
‘Com., 4Ω, 8Ω dan 16Ω’.
 Variety connection of the speaker method
can be implement as long as the total
impedance connected to the amplifier is
suitable with the value of the amplifier
terminal connection point.


4Ω 8Ω 4Ω

High impedance amplifier
 Speaker installation method for this amplifier is called
‘Constant Voltage Distribution System’ (Sistem Agihan
Voltan Tetap)
 The amplifer attached with speaker point that is labelled
with ‘Com., 4Ω, 8Ω dan 16Ω’.
 All the speaker connection is in parallel via transformer
for impedance matching.
 Voltage distribution value normally from 70V – 100V.

70V @ 100V line



High Low impedance Primary Secondary

impedance terminal
Type of the speakers & the range that will
divide the speaker categories.

High impedance

Mark at the amplifier for high impedance

 mark of 70V, 100V & 110V.

Speaker condition
For range more than 10 m.
Every speaker is attached with MT.
Horn type speaker.
Matching Transformer (MT)

Attached with Horn Speaker type.

MT will match power which was produced

by amplifier with rating to Horn speaker.

In other words, amplifier will induce MT

and MT's output power to produce Horn
speaker sound.

This method can extend life time’s of the

Type of speakers & the range that will divide
the speaker categories.
Low impedance

Mark at the amplifier for low impedance

 Mark of 4Ω, 8Ω & 16Ω.

Speaker condition that is categorized as

high impedance connection
 For range less than 10 m.
 Speaker value – not same
 Papercone & ceiling type speaker.
Speaker Selection
 Avoid non clearity problem and low
power sound.

Class of Speaker
1. Open place - freq waveform
between 800 Hz ~ 6000 Hz
2. Music background – for gentle music
freq between 100 Hz ~ 800Hz

3. Music – refer to the hall condition/

design for music 40Hz ~15000Hz
Speaker Arrangement
1. Main System
- Speaker place at the center of the
hall to control sound convergence to one
direction. Low maintenance cost.
2. Spreading System
- Scattered arrangement for
- Speaker combination can strengthen
sound at the small space.
- However the sound quality is
3. Combination System
- Combination of 2 system.
Arrangement & Speaker power distribution at
the internal building area.
 When setting the location of speaker in a

room, factor of level of noise, height of

ceiling, wide area of the room, use of the
speaker & etc.
 Below shows the criteria taken on speaker

installation :-
Speaker Keluasan kawasan bagi memperolehi 76dB keluaran

WT – 707N (7W) Kira-kira 32m persegi

WT – 715N (15W) Kira-kira 64m persegi

WT – 202AN (10W) Kira-kira 80m persegi

WT – 200AN (15W) Kira-kira 100m persegi

Introduction to the Sound
Reinforcement system and the
different with the PA system.
 Sound Reinforcement system is used to
produce a high energy sound signal in a
wider area.
 Suitable for musical & vocal while PA
system is suitable for speech and lecture
 Additional equipment can increase the
capability of PA system to be a sound
reinforcement system.
 The different between PA system and Sound Reinforcement

PA System Sound Reinforcement

Limited space for equipment. Wide area for equipment

Level of sound spreading are not Wider of level of sound spreading

Lower cost More expensive cost
Low level of power & equipment High power and use many
consumption. equipment.

Suitable for general broadcasting Suitable for music

Have 1 output channel Have 2 output channel
1 channel o/p connected to a 2 o/p channel which each o/p
numer of speaker have 1 speaker
Determination of Speaker Location

PointB Point A Point C

3 to 3 rca

DVD Player Equalizer Limiter

Canon jack to
2 to 2 rca plug
mono jack cable

Speakon plug to Crossover

speakon plug cable

Speakon plug to Speakers
speakon plug cable

Wireless Mic Sub-woofer

 Audio compressor – to compress @

limitting audio signal range.
 Automatically fixed the signal level
before send it to tape for recording
 The compress process – to allow
high/ low sound to be adjusted.
 Basic control system in the compressor
for user :-
* I/P – Set i/p level

* Treshold – set level as a reference

before the compressor operate.

* Ratio – Set ratio to the rise of dB

at the signal below treshold level.
i.e. : Set 4:1 – bila treshold level
dicapai, hanya 1dB kenaikan pd o/p
utk setiap 4dB kenaikan pd i/p signal.
* Attack – Time taken to act
when the signal cross the
treshold level.

* Decay – Time taken back to

normal condition when the signal
become below the treshold level.

* O/P - Set o/p level.

Circuit Operation

 IC1 act as amplifier where the

gain determine by the R1– resistor
between Drain & Source FET
2N3819. R1, R2 & R3 determine
FET V-I characteristic.
 O/p circuit connected with the
feed back circuit.
 Attack and Decay controlled by
R4 (1ms) and R5 (517ms)
Circuit Operation

 2 way switch – select compressor

working condition –fix gain @

 VR1 – adjustable gain

R4, R5 & feedback connection –
fixed gain
 In this circuit, a 29dB change in
the input signal level produces a
9dB change in the output.

 Audio mixer is used to mix many

type of i/p sound signal.
 Normally there is 8 ~ 10 input.

 Low freq., mid range freq. & high

 The gain for i/p signal can be

controlled to follow needs of user

@ to get any special effect.
 Problem encounter - copying video tapes is
the deterioration in the sound quality. 
 To correct the sound signal to produce the
o/p sound approx. near to the original sound. (
by correcting the freq response ) .
 5 band equalizer design to connect 2 AV o/p
component to produce freq response that can
be controlled.
 The five controls each have a range of +/- 10dB at
centre frequencies of 100Hz, 300Hz, 1KHz, 3KHz &

 The 3dB points on each band are at 1/2 and twice

the centre frequencies.

 Thus, the 3dB points on the 100Hz control are at

50Hz and 200Hz.  With all controls at maximum the
unit has a total gain of 15dB.  The unit will accept
an input of up to about 1V RMS (3V pk-pk) before
distortion occurs with all controls at maximum.
Circuit operation
 I/p is buffered by the IC1, (non-inverting
with gain) which the gain can be controlled by
altering R1 & R4.
 For easier explaination, assume 5 frequency
selective sections disappeared, as well as five
of the control pots.  The wiper of the
remaining pot is connected to ground via a 1K0
resistor. So, the gain is 10.
 So, if the 1k replaced back to the 5 band freq,

it shows that the gain can be adjusted.

 This cct is using capacitor and inductor in series
connection as an adjuster. Gyrator model cct is used to
replace the inductor due to difficulty
 Refer to the cct, C2 - capacitor. Whereas, C3, R7 &
R8 act as inductor. Value of C3 will determine the freq
for each band.
 In the last IC3 will function as Unity Gain buffer.
 SW1 act as selector switch to select unit to be in
equalizer mode or not.

 Function to change & adjust the sound

structure to produce the best sound o/p.
 The sound effect that can be produce by
this processor is like echo (gema), surround
(modulasi keliling) etc.
 Normally used in the computer and television

* A rapid repetition of the same note, a rapid variation in the

amplitude of a single note, or an alternation between
two or more notesThis is more usually called vibrato.
Sound Delay Cct
 To delay the signal, which makes the sound
are far away.

 Normally in surround decoder cct where the

o/p will provide a passable rear channel signal.

 As example, IC M65830 is use.

 This IC need 5V supply. Whereas pin 11 & 12

need good separation between ground for
analog and digital signal
 Cap 68nF at pin 16 & 20 – to control
modulation ( conversion of digital & analog)
& demodulation. However the tolerance
should not exceeds 5% to get good result.
 I/P driver cct – to decrease the i/p value
signal to avoid overload. The max value for
this IC i/p is 1 Vrms.
 This is because signal for CD player
normally at 2.5 Vrms. So, by using the
driver cct, the signal can be decrease.