Sunteți pe pagina 1din 24

GT20302

USUL FIQH/ISLAMIC
JURISPRUDENCE

The Second Source of


Shariah: The Sunnah

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 1


Contents
1. Introduction
2. Proof-Value (Hujjiyyah) of Sunnah
3. Classification 1
4. Classification 2
5. Classification 3
6. Classification 4
7. Self Study

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 2


Introduction
• Introduction:
-Literally, sunnah means a clear path or a
beaten track but it has also been used to
imply normative practice, or an established
course of conduct.
-In pre-Islamic Arabia: used the word
‘Sunnah’ in reference to the ancient and
continuous practice of the community which
they inherited from their forefathers.
11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 3
Introduction
-Opposite: bid’ah or innovation.
-To the ulema of Hadith, Sunnah refers to
all that is narrated from the Prophet, his
acts, his sayings and whatever he has
tacitly approved plus all the reports which
describe his physical attributes &
character.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 4


Introduction
-The ulema of jurisprudence: exclude the
description of the physical features of the
Prophet from the definition of Sunnah.
-The ulema of Usul Fiqh: refers to a
source of the Shariah and a legal proof
next to the Quran.
-The ulema of Fiqh: refers to a Shar’i
value which falls under the general
category of ‘mandub’.
11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 5
Sunnah = Hadith?

What the differences between Sunnah


and Hadith?

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 6


Proof-Value (Hujjiyyah) of Sunnah

-the ulema are unanimous to the effect that


Sunnah is a source of Shariah and that in
its rulings with regard to halal and haram it
stands on the same footing as the Quran.
-Sunnah: is a proof (hujjah) for the Quran,
testifies to its authority and enjoins the
Muslim to comply with it.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 7


Proof-Value (Hujjiyyah) of Sunnah

- His acts and teachings that are meant to


establish a rule of Shariah constitute a
binding proof.
- All the rulings of the Prophet, especially
correspond with the Quran and
corroborate its contents, constitute binding
law.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 8


Classification 1
-the Sunnah is divided into three types: 1)
verbal (qawli), 2) actual (fi’li), 3) tacitly
approved (taqriri).
1) The Verbal Sunnah
-consist of the sayings of the Prophet on
any subject.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 9


Classification 1
2) The Actual Sunnah
-consists of his deeds and actual
instructions, such as the way he
performed the ‘salah’, or the transactions
he concluded such as sale and giving
loans, etc.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 10


Classification 1
3) The Tacitly Approved Sunnah
-consists of the acts and sayings of the
Companions which came to the knowledge of
the Prophet and of which he approved.
-may be inferred from his silence and lack of
disapproval or from his express approval and
verbal confirmation.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 11


Classification 2
-from the viewpoint of the continuity and
completeness of their chains of
transmitters, the Hadith are once again
classified into two categories:1)
continuous(muttasil). 2)discontinued(ghayr
muttasil/mursal).

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 12


Classification 2
- Continuous Hadith:one which has a complete chain
of transmission from the narrator all the way back to
the Prophet.
-Discontinued Hadith:chain of transmitters is broken
and incomplete.
- The majority of ulema have divided the Continuous
Hadith into the three varieties of Mutawatir,
Mashhur and Ahad.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 13


Classification 2
1) Mutawatir
-means continuously recurrent. In the
present context, it means a report by an
indefinite number of people related in such
a way as to preclude the possibility of their
agreement to perpetuate a lie.
-Such a possibility is inconceivable owing
to their large number, diversity of residence
and reliability.
11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 14
Classification 2
2) The Mashhur (Well-Known) Hadith
-defined as a Hadith which is originally
reported by one, two or more Companions
from the Prophet or from another
Companion but has later become well-
known and transmitted by an indefinite
number of people.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 15


Classification 2
• -the diffusion of the report should have
taken place during the first or the second
generation following the demise of the
Prophet, not later-mean that the Hadith
became widely known during the period of
the Companions or the Successors.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 16


Classification 2
3) The Ahad (Solitary Hadith)
-also known as Khabar al-Wahid. Hadith
which is reported by a single person or by
odd individuals from the Prophet.
-Imam Shafi’i: every report narrated by one,
two or more persons from the Prophet but
which fails to fulfil the requirement of either
the Mutawatir or the Mashhur.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 17


Classification 2
• Discontinued Hadith
-this is a Hadith whose chain of
transmitters does not extend all the way
back to the Prophet.
-it occurs in three varieties: Mursal, Mu’dal
and Munqati’.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 18


Classification 2
1) Mursal
-defined as a Hadith which a
Successor(tabi’i) has directly attributed to
the Prophet without mentioning the last
link, namely the Companion who might
have narrated it from the Prophet.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 19


Classification 2
2) Mu’dal
-is a Hadith in which two consecutive links
are missing in the chain of its narrators.
3) Munqati’
-a Hadith whose chain of narrators has a
single missing link somewhere in the
middle.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 20


Classification 3
• The Sunnah, according to the reference
to a particular authority is divided into
four types:
1) Hadith al-qudsi
2) Hadith al-marfu’
3) Hadith al-mauquf
4) Hadith al-maqtu’
* Refer to the table
11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 21
Classification 4
• Classification based on the degree of
their reliability or the quality of the
Sunnah. Four categories:
1) Sahih (sound)
2) Hasan (good)
3) Dhaif (weak)
4) Maudu’ (fabricated, forged)
* Refer to the table
11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 22
SELF STUDY
• Six books of the Sunnah that can be
regarded as the most authentic collection
of Sunnah, namely:
1) The Sahih of al- Bukhari
2) The Sahih of Muslim
3) The Sunan of al-Nasa’i
4) The Sunan of Abu Daud
5) The al-Jami’ of al-Tirmizi
6) The Sunan of Ibn Majah
11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 23
Thank you very
much for your
attention
Best wishes to you in your endeavours and
may God bless you.

11/21/09 All Rights Reserved 2008_Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad 24