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CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 1

CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS


CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 2
This presentation contains certain forward looking statements concerning future business prospects and profitability of HCC, which are subject to a
number of risks and uncertainties and actual results could materially differ from those in such forward looking statements, important developments
that could affect the company's operations include a downtrend in the infrastructure sector, significant changes in political and economic environment
in India, tax laws, labor relations, litigation etc. The company does not undertake to make any announcement in case any of these forward looking
statements become materially incorrect in future or update any forward looking statements made from time to time by or on behalf of the company.
DISCLAIMER
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 3
CONCRETE
Concrete is a mix of Cement, fine aggregate, Coarse aggregate, water,
Chemical Admixtures and some times supplementary cementitious materials
like Fly ash, GGBS, Micro silica etc. which, when placed in the skeleton of
forms, allowed to hydrate and cured, form a hardened mass with very high
compressive strength.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 4
INGREDIENTS OF CONCRETE
Cement
Aggregates :
Fine Aggregates
Coarse aggregates
Water
Admixtures & Construction Chemicals
Supplementary Cementitious Material (SCM)
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CEMENT
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Chemical Composition of Cement

Oxides Percent, content
CaO 60-67
Sio
2
17-25
Al2O
3
3-8
Fe
2
O
3
0.5-6.0
MgO 0.1-4.0
Alkalies (K
2
O, Na
2
O) 0.4-1.3
SO
3
1.3-3.0
Approx. Oxide Composition of OPC
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 7
CEMENT: (contd..)
These compounds present in the raw materials when subjected to high
clinkering temperature combine with each other to form compounds
called Bogues compound

Tricalcium silicate 3 CaO.SiO
2
C
3
S
Dicalcium silicate 2 CaO.SiO
2
C
2
S
Tricalcium Aluminate 3 CaO.Al
2
O
3
C
3
A
Tretracalcium Aluminoferrite 4 CaO.Al
2
O
3
.Fe
2
O
3
C
4
AF



CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 8
CEMENT: (contd..)
Compound composition using Bogues Equation (In percent)
C
3
S 54.1
C
2
S 16.6
C
3
A 10.8
C
4
AF 9.1


CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 9

CEMENT: (contd..)

Tri calcium silicate & dicalcium silicate constitute 70 to 80% of cement & are
the most important compounds responsible for strength.

Also modifications in cement can be made which will lead to the production
of different types of cement as will be discussed separately in further course
of the discussion.





CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 10
Rate of heat of hydration of pure compounds
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1 Days 10 Days 100 Days 180 Days
Time (log scale) - days
F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

H
y
d
r
a
t
e
d
C3S
C2S
C3A
C4AF
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 11
CEMENT: (contd..)
Thus it is obvious from the above graph that initial heat of hydration for both
C
3
A & C
4
AF is more but increase in rate of hydration is slow as compared to
C
3
S and C
2
S.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 12

CEMENT: (contd..)
CALCIUM SILICATE HYDRATES:
During the course of reaction of C
3
S and C
2
S with water, Calcium silicate
hydrates (C-S-H) and Ca(OH)
2
are formed.
2 C
3
S + 6H C
3
S
2
H
3
+ 3Ca(OH)
2
2 C
2
S + 4H C
3
S
2
H
3
+ Ca(OH)
2






CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 13
TYPES OF CEMENT
1) Ordinary Portland Cement
a) O.P.C 33 Grade - IS:269:1989
b) O.P.C 43 Grade - IS:8112:1987
c) O.P.C 53 Grade - IS:12269:1987
2) Rapid Hardening Cement - IS:8041:1990
3) Sulphate Resisting Cement - IS:12330:1988
4) Portland Slag Cement - IS:455:1989
5) Low Heat Cement - IS:12600:1989
6) Portland Pozzolana Cement - IS:1489 (Part I)
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 14
PROPERTIES OF CEMENT
IS:8112
(43 Grade)
IS:12269
(53 Grade)
IS:1489
(part I)(PPC)
Specific Surface (Blaine's m
2
/kg) Min. 225 225
300
a) By Le-chatelier mould (mm) Max 10 10 10
b) By Autoclave (%) Max 0.8 0.8 0.8
a) Initial Set (minutes) Min. 30 30 30
b) Final Set (minutes) Max 600 600 600
a) 3 Days (MPa) Min. 23 27 16
b) 7 Days (MPa) Min. 33 37 22
c) 28 Days (MPa) Min. 43 53 33
Requirements As Per
1) Fineness
3) Setting Time
4) Compressive Strength
2) Soundness
Description
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AGGREGATES
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INTRODUCTION:
Aggregates are important constituents in concrete & give body to the
concrete.
Reduce shrinkage & Effect economy.
Occupy 70-80 % of volume of concrete.

CLASSIFICATION:

Aggregates can be classified as:
Normal weight aggregates
Heavy weight aggregates
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FINE AGGREGATES:
Natural or manufactured sand with particles up to 10mm.
Generally, sand particles almost entirely pass the 4.75mm sieve and
are predominantly retained on the 75m sieve.
COARSE AGGREGATES :
Natural gravel or manufactured material. The particles are
predominantly retained on the 4.75mm sieve.
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SIZE OF AGGREGATES
MAS that can be used are governed by the following factors:
Thickness of section
Spacing of reinforcement
Clear Cover
Mixing, Handling, & placing techniques.
MAS of 20mm is widely used for structural & Road Works.
MAS of 10mm is used in shotcrete.
MAS of 80 to 150mm is used for mass concreting.
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SHAPE OF AGGREGATES
The shape of aggregates is an imp. characteristic since it affects the
workability of concrete.

Flaky particles have influence on workability, cement requirement,
interlocking, strength, & durability.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 20
Aggregates: (contd)

The grading, the shape and the texture of aggregates can significantly
influence concrete workability.

The amount of water required for a target workability is related to
aggregate properties:

Nominal maximum size of the coarse aggregate.

Shape and texture of particles of fine and coarse aggregates.

Grading of coarse aggregate.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 21
Aggregates: (contd)
Angular sand (manufactured sand) can significantly increase the water
demand and the cement content for a required slump.
Very coarse sands and coarse aggregates can produce harsh,
unworkable mixes.
Changes in grading (or the shape / texture) of the aggregates can cause
changes in the water demand of concrete, segregation and affect uniformity
of concrete from batch to batch.
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PROPERTIES OF COARSE AGGREGATES:
Properties Road Works
Structural Concrete
Deleterious Material (Dust)
Max. 3% passing
0.075 mm sieve
Max. 3% passing
0.075 mm sieve
Aggregate Crushing Value Max. 30% Max. 45%
Aggregate Impact Value Max. 30% Max. 45%
Aggregate Abrasion Value (Los Angeles) Max. 30% Max. 50%
Soundness Test a) Sodium Sulphate Max. 12% Max. 12%
b) Magnesium Sulphate Max. 18% Max. 18%
Flakiness Index - Max. 35%
Flakiness & Elongation Index (Combined) Max. 30% Max. 30%
Water Absorption Max. 2% Max. 2%
a) Mortar Bar Test Max. expansion 0.1% Max. expansion 0.1%
b) Chemical Test
Ref er to Fig. 6 in
IS: 2386 (Part VII)
Ref er to Fig. 6 in
IS: 2386 (Part VII)
Alkali Aggregate Reactivity
Coarse Aggregates
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 23
PROPERTIES OF FINE AGGREGATES
Properties Road Works Structural Concrete
1) Fineness Modulus - 2.5to 3.5
2)Water Absorption Max. 2% Max. 2%
3) Soundness Test:
a) Sodium Sulphate Max. 10% Max. 10%
b) Magnesium Sulphate Max. 15% Max. 15%
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 24
Limits of Deleterious materials for fine aggregates
Descrip.
Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate
Uncrushed Crushed Uncrushed Crushed
Coal and lignite 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Clay lumps 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Material finer than
75 mic.
3.0 15.0 3.0 3.0
Soft fragments - - 3.0 -
Shale 1.0 - - -
Total of all (except
mica)
5.0 2.0 5.0 5.0
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 25
Grading of Coarse Aggregates as per Table 2 of
IS:383-1970
I.S Seive
(mm)
% Passing
63mm 40mm 20mm 16mm 12.5mm 10mm
80 100 - - - - -
63 85 to 100 100 - - - -
40 0 to 30 85 to 100 100 - - -
20 0 to 5 0 to 20 85 to 100 100 - -
16 - - - 85 to 100 100 -
12.5 - - - - 85 to 100 100
10 0 to 5 0 to 5 0 to 20 0 to 30 0 to 45 85 to 100
4.75 - - 0 to 5 0 to 5 0 to 10 0 to 20
2.36 - - - - - 0 to 5
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 26
Grading of Fine Aggregates as per Table 4 IS:383-1970
I.S
Seive(mm)
% Passing
River Sand
Crushed Sand
(Manufactured Sand)
Zone I Zone II Zone III Zone IV
10 100 100 100 100
The Permissible Limit
on 150 micron Seive is
increased to 20 Percent
( all other limits
remaining same)
4.75 90-100 90-100 90-100 95-100
2.36 60-95 75-100 85-100 95-100
1.18 30-70 55-90 75-100 90-100
0.6 15-34 35-59 60-79 80-100
0.3 5-20 8-30 12-40 15-50
0.15 0-10 0-10 0-10 0-15
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 27
Aggregates: (contd)
Once the individual grading of coarse & fine aggregates are fixed
then they are combined to get the most suitable grading.

The process of combining aggregates is a trial & error method.

A sample calculation for this is shown.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 28
Combined Gradation
Seive
Size
(mm)
Individual Grading Combined Grading Limit
20
mm
10
mm
C.
Sand
N.
Sand
30% 20% 32% 18%
L.
Limit
U.
Limit
20 95.5 100 100 100 98.8 100 100
10 0.1 88.7 100 98.4 67.5 61 72
4.75 0 9.2 98.6 87.4 49.1 40 58
2.36 0 1.1 84.6 76.3 41.1 28 47
1.18 0 0 52.1 33.7 22.7 18 35
0.6 0 0 39.5 9.9 14.4 12 25
0.3 0 0 30.1 1.8 9.97 7 14
0.15 0 0 21.8 0.5 7.0 3 8
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 29
Combined Gradation Graph
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0.15 0.3 0.6 1.18 2.36 4.75 10 20
Seive Size (mm)
%

P
a
s
s
i
n
g
L.Limit
U.Limit
Act.Grad.
COMBINED GRADATION GRAPH
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 30
ALL IN AGGREGATE FOR NORMAL CONCRETE AS PER TABLE 5 OF IS:383-1970:
IS Seive
(mm)
% Passing
40mm 20mm
80 100 -
40 95 to 100 100
20 45 to 75 95 to 100
4.75 25 to 45 30 to 50
0.6 8 to 30 10 to 35
0.15 0 to 6 0 to 6
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 31
COMBINED GRADATION FOR PUMP CONCRETE AS PER ACI 304.2R-91
IS Seive (mm) % Passing
25mm Max. Size 20mm Max. Size
25 100 -
20 80-88 100
13 64-75 75-82
9.5 55-70 61-72
4.75 40-58 40-58
2.36 28-47 28-47
1.18 18-35 18-35
0.6 12-25 12-25
0.3 7-14 7-14
0.15 3-8 3-8
0.075 0 0
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 32

WATER

CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 33


Water is an important ingredient of concrete as it actively participates
in the chemical reaction with cement.

Since water helps to form the strength giving cement gel, the Quality
of water is required to be maintained.

A popular yardstick to measure the suitability of water for mixing
concrete is that, if water is fit for drinking it is fit for making concrete.
WATER

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Permissible Limits for Solids as per Table 1
IS:456-2000
Material Limits
Organic 200 mg/ml
Inorganic 3000 mg/ml
Sulphates (as SO
3
) 400 mg/ml
Chlorides (as Cl) 2000 mg/ml
Suspended matter 2000 mg/ml
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 35
Water: (contd )
Also the following guidelines are followed as per IS:456-2000:

The pH value of water shall be not less than 6.

Avg. 28 day comp. Strength of at least 3 cubes with the water
proposed shall not be less than 90% of the avg. of strength of 3 cubes
prepared with distilled water.

Initial Setting time of test block made with water proposed shall not be
less than 30 min. & shall not differ by +/- 30 min. from the initial setting
time of control test block.
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ADMIXTURES
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Admixture can be defined as a chemical product which, is added to
the concrete batch immediately before or during mixing or during an
additional mixing operation prior to the placing of concrete for the
purpose of achieving specific modifications to the normal properties of
concrete.

Admixtures are commonly classified by their function in concrete but
often they exhibit some additional action.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 38
Concrete must be placeable and durable.

High degree of workability is required in case of thin walls, tremie
concreting, pumping of concrete.

Durability includes limitation for water to cement ratio so that the
concrete structure maintains its required strength and serviceability.
Why do we need Admixtures
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 39
Admixtures: (contd)
Admixtures are generally used to achieve the following:
In Fresh Concrete:

Increase workability and/or pumpability without increasing the w/c
ratio.

Improve cohesiveness and thereby reducing segregation or bleeding.

Improve to some extent set retardation

Entrain air bubbles in the fresh concrete.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 40
Admixtures: (contd)
In Hardened Concrete:
Increase strength by reducing w/c ratio, maintaining the same
workability

Reduce permeability and improve durability by reducing w/c ratio.

Reduce heat of hydration by reducing cement content.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 41
Admixtures: (contd)
The classification of ASTM C 494-92 is as follows:
Type A - Water reducing
Type B - Retarding
Type C - Accelerating
Type D - Water reducing and retarding
Type E - Water reducing and accelerating
Type F - High range water reducing (HRWRA) or
Superplasticisers.
Type G - High range water reducing & Retarding
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 42

Specialty admixtures :


Concrete curing compounds,
Corrosion inhibitors,
shrinkage control
Viscosity modifying agents,
coloring,
permeability-reducing, etc.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 43
Water reducing admixtures
These are principally surface active agents (surfactants).

Fine cement particles being very small clump together and flocculate
when water is added to concrete.

Plasticizers induce negative charge on the individual cement particles
such that fine cement particles are dispersed due to inter particle
repulsion.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 44
Interaction of Water reducing admixtures
Cement
particles
Negative charge induced.
Interparticle repulsion occurs
Water
released
Water
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 45
Conventional Water reducing admixtures
Reduce water content up to 5%.

Lignosulfonates, polysaccharides (glucose and corn syrup, molasses).

Hydroxylated carboxylic acids and their salts: (Gluconate,
Glucoheptanate, citrate).
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 46
Mid Range Water reducing admixtures
Reduce water content up to 12%.

Formulated admixtures: poorly purified lignins, modified sulfonated
naphthalene or melamine, carboxylic acid-based polymers, etc.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 47
RETARDERS
Retardation of concrete mix is required in the case of:
Hot Weather Concreting

Preventing formation of cold joints.

Loss of workability in case of transportation over long
distances.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 48
Mechanism of Working
These admixtures modify the crystal growth or morphology
becoming adsorbed on formed membrane of hydrated cement
and slow down the growth of calcium hydroxide nuclei.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 49
Admixtures: (contd)

Common Chemicals Used in Retarding Admixtures:

Sugar

Carbohydrate derivatives

Soluble zinc salts

Soluble borates
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 50

Admixtures: (contd)

It should be kept in mind that while retarders help in retarding the
setting time of the mix at the same time they reduce the final strength of
the mix.

Hence the mix should be designed keeping this in mind and making
suitable allowances for the same.

Great care is necessary in using retarders as incorrect quantities can
totally inhibit setting and hardening properties of concrete.
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 51
Admixtures: (contd)
Accelerators:
Accelerators are required in the case of :
Very low temperatures.

Earlier removing of formwork.

Reduce required period of curing.

In shotcrete for overhead & other applications.

CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 52
Admixtures: (contd)
Common Chemicals Used in Accelerating Accelerators:
Inorganic
Calcium Chloride
Calcium Nitrate
Calcium Nitrite
Shotcrete
Aluminates & Silicates
Water Glass ( Modified water Glass )
Alkali free.

CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 53
Mechanism is similar to water reducing admixtures.

Water reduction upto 25% can be achieved.

Use of HRWRA has made it possible to use low water to
cement ratio maintaining high workability.
High Range Water Reducing Admixtures
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 54
Sulphonated napthalene-formaldehyde condensates (SNF).

Sulphonated melamine-formaldehyde condensates.(SMF).

Fourth generation Superplasticizers:
Polycarboxylate Ether (PCE)

Acrylic polymer based (AC)

Multicarboxylate Ether
Classification High Range Water Reducing Admixtures
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS June 14 Page 55
THANK YOU