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Multiview Sketches

Engineering Graphics
Stephen W. Crown Ph.D.
Objective
How to use sketching as an effective
tool in the engineering design process
How to represent a 3-D object
effectively on a 2-D drawing surface
(multiview sketching)
Overview
Sketching
Definition
Tools / Instruments
Mechanics of sketching
Lines and Curves
A Bounding Box
Multiview sketches
How to create them
When to use them
Why use sketches?
Creativity
Communication
Documentation

Sketching
Definition: A rough freehand drawing
used to document, communicate, and
refine ideas developed in the ideation
phase of the design process
Beginners will benefit from instruments
Follows standard practices
A developed skill
Should be the first step of
any CAD drawing
Tools
Pencils
Use a mechanical pencil (0.5mm lead)
Practice using different pressure to produce
desired linetypes (construction lines)
Paper
Unlined paper is the most useful
Square grid and tracing paper is often useful
Eraser
A good eraser is worth the investment
Do not overuse your eraser (save some mistakes)
Using Simple Instruments
The use of mechanical instruments is
recommended only for beginners. Break away
from reliance on tools that slow you down.
Helpful tools for beginners
Compass
Triangles
Dividers
Ruler
Mechanics of Sketching
Drawing straight
lines
Drawing curved
lines
Using a bounding
box

Drawing straight lines
Mark starting and ending point
Break long lines into short line
segments by marking the midpoint
Start with a light pass if necessary
and then darken
Use a loose comfortable grip
Reorient the paper to your
convenience
test your skill with different orientations
an awkward orientation may
occasionally produce positive results
Drawing curved lines
Break large arcs/circles into
small segments
Make guide marks for each
segment
Circles and Ellipses
Sketch a light square/rectangle
Lightly sketch in diagonals
Mark contact points on
square/rectangle
Rotate the paper for each
segment
Bounding Box and Construction Lines
Plan
choose proper scale and
orientation
dont crowd sketches
Start with a bounding box
Use light straight
construction lines
Draw boundary lines of
internal features starting
with the largest features
Sketch dark object lines
using light boundary lines
as a guide
Multiview Sketching
Represents a 3-D object
with a series of 2-D
views in contrast to
pictorials which show
all three dimensions in a
single view
Also called orthographic
projection
Best understood by
engineers or technically
trained people

Multiview Drawing
Pictorial
Parallel projection
Preserves true relationship
between features
The geometry is generally not distorted
Lines that are parallel on the object are
parallel on the drawing
Parallel projectors
The object is projected onto a
projection plane as a shadow is
projected where the rays form the light
source are parallel.
Projection from one view to another is
accomplished with parallel projection
lines
Parallel versus Perspective Projection
Parallel
Perspective
Parallel
Perspective
Projection Planes versus Views
Projection planes:
Object formed from projection lines projected
perpendicularly onto a projection plane
Planes: Horizontal, frontal, and profile
Each projection plane is perpendicular to adjacent
projection planes
Principle views
The object is rotated 90 degrees about the horizontal
or vertical axis to give six principle views (top,
bottom, front, rear, left, and right side)
Common views: top, front, and right side
Only use Necessary Views
One view drawings
Stamped, thin or extruded parts
Specify thickness with a note
Two view drawings
Cylindrical parts
Show the circular and
rectangular view
Three view drawings
Usually sufficient for all other
drawings
Top, front, and right side view
Orientation and Placement of Views
The most descriptive view
should be selected as the
front view
The natural orientation of
the part should be
preserved if possible
Views must be aligned
Top view above front view
Right view to the right of
front view
Hidden lines
Represented with
dashed lines
Precedence of lines
(visible, hidden, center)
Views should be
selected to minimize
the use of hidden lines
most descriptive view
should be selected as
the front view
Third Angle Projection Associated with English
units



First Angle Projection Associated with SI units
First Versus Third Angle Projection
ANSI Symbol
Fold Lines
Represents a 90 degree fold between views
Generally not shown on engineering
drawings except when views other than the
principle views (auxiliary views) are used.
Labeled as: H/F, F/P, F/1, 1/2

Terminology to Relate Views
Adjacent view
A view that is separated by a fold line
The top view is an adjacent view to the front view
Central View
A view that is between two adjacent views
The front view is the central view of the top, front,
and right side view
Related views
Two views that are adjacent to a central view
The top and right side view are related views
since they are both adjacent to the front view
Constructing a New View
The top and front views
of a surface are shown
The fold line represents
a 90 degree fold
between the views
Parallel projection lines
are perpendicular to the
fold line
1
2
3
3
2
1
Constructing a New View
A vertical fold line is drawn at an
arbitrary distance from the front view
Parallel projection lines are drawn
from each vertex
The common depth between the top
and side view is used to locate each
vertex on the projection lines
1
2
3
3
2
1
1
2
3
Sketching as Part of the Creative
Design Process
Quickly translate
thoughts to paper
An effective means
of communication
Stimulates creativity
and visualization
Sketching Allows for the Quick
Translation of Thoughts to Paper
Commit thoughts to paper before you
lose an idea
Avoid the of use mechanical tools (drawing
tools are helpful for beginners)
Does not need to be an exact representation
objects may be simplified
parts may be missing
Avoid erasing
as new ideas are developed make new sketches
start with light lines and then darken with darker
lead or heavier strokes
Sketching is An Effective Means
of Communication
Understand your audience
Who is looking at the sketches?
What details are they interested in?
What type of sketch will they best understand?
Follow standard practices
You may not always accompany your sketches
Others may misinterpret your drawing
Sketches provide a log of ideas that were
considered in a brainstorming session
Sketching Stimulates Creativity
and Helps Visualization
The process of sketching ideas that are partially
developed often aids the design process
do not wait until you have a clear picture before you
start sketching
allow yourself the freedom to make mistakes
Visualization of the entire design is essential but
often impossible without aid of sketches
Appendix
Engineering Graphics
Make a Quick Sketch
How many of the nine views consisted of a
square bounding box?
How many of the nine views are the same?
How many of the nine views consisted of only
vertical or horizontal lines?
What is the volume of each object (Cube=8 in
3
)?
You will have ten seconds to make a
sketch of each object shown below
before being asked a few questions
about the objects.