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Title or Name of presentation June 14 Page 1

MIX DESIGN 1

BY
CHANDRA SEKHAR PASUPULETI

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Stability
Durability
Flexibility
Fatigue resistance
Skid resistance
Impermeability
Workability
Mix design targets for..?
Mix design
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Stability = f (internal friction, cohesion, density)
Internal friction:
it is directly related to the stability
Increases with roughness and angularity of
aggregate particle
Increases with area of particle contact
Depends upon particle size and shape
Excessive asphalt content reduces the
internal friction
Mix design
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Cohesion: It is the internal binding force that is
inherent in the asphalt paving mixture.
It is directly related to the stability
Increases with rate of loading
Increases with area of loading
Increases with viscosity (viscosity is
inversely proportional to temperature)
Increases with asphalt content up to certain
limit (optimum) and then decreases
Mix design
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Stability and cohesion with air voids
Mix design
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Density: stability increases with density, it can be
achieved by compaction.
Compaction = f( Compressive force, restricting force
incl. confinement)

Mix design
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Durability =
f(asphalt content, gradation, compaction, permeability)

(Stability & Durability) Vs Bitumen Content
3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5
Bitumen content in %
S
t
a
b
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t
y

&

D
u
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a
b
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Stability
Durability
Binder &
lubricant
Lubricant
Mix design
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Asphalts activity towards durability :
Acts as lubricant and binder (density)
Reduces the air voids
Increases the stability up to certain level
Asphalt will be degraded by oxidation and
volatilization(demands more asphalt)
Gradation: Grading that satisfies all the criteria.
Mix design
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Grading chart with all details
0
20
40
60
80
100
0.01 2.01 4.01
Sieve sizes raised to 0.45 power
%

a
g
e

p
a
s
s
i
n
g
spec LL
spec UL
max density
restric LL
restric UL
BC9
BC 7
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Compaction is directly related with the durability.
Impermeability also directly related to the durability.
(Avoids ingress of water and air)
Flexibility:
It is the ability of an asphalt paving mixture to be
able to bend slightly, without cracking, and to
conform to gradual settlements and movements of
the base and sub grade.
Mix design
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To take care of differential settlements due to different
compaction levels and different materials in different
layers.
Flexibility can be enhanced by increasing asphalt and
relatively open graded mixes.
Mix design
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Fatigue resistance:
It is the ability of asphalt pavement to withstand
repeated flexing caused by the passage of wheel
loads
Fatigue resistance can be enhanced by increasing
asphalt and relatively dense graded mixes.
Well-graded aggregates that permit higher asphalt
content without causing flushing or bleeding in a
compacted pavement should be incorporated in the
mix.
Mix design
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Skid resistance:
It is ability of asphalt paving surface, particularly
when wet, to offer resistance to slipping or skidding.
It can be improved by using rough textured
aggregate.
All the factors affecting the stability also affects
the skid resistance.

Mix design
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Permeability:
Interconnected air voids are more dangerous than
isolated air voids.
It can be enhanced by increasing asphalt content.
Workability:
Properly designed mix and temperature

Mix design